Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Painted Lady / Tidselsommerfugl

Cynthia cardui


The Painted Lady has a wing span of 50-60 mm. It is easy to recognize, and there are almost no variations. The orange colour might be blurred by dark "scales". In rare cases are the circular spots in the seams of the back wings larger and blue in the middle.

The Painted Lady arrives (to Denmark) from North Africa in May-June or (infrequently) in April. Danish descendants fly from late July until beginning of October. As a migrating butterfly it is seen everywhere and breeds in all sorts of open areas. In the migration periods it is often seen in large numbers in flower-rich spots along the coast.

It cannot overwinter in Denmark, neither as a grown-up butterfly nor as egg, caterpillar and chrysalis. In North Africa, from where the Danish migrators origin, flies the Painted Lady all year and propagates especially in the winter period.



The caterpillar's fodderplants are thistles (Carduus and Cirsium) and many other composites and nettle (Urtica) and several other low plants.

The flight is quick and whirring, and in the migrations the Painted Lady might appear in hundred- thousands or in millions. It is attraced to many various flowers, especially Eupatorium (named bonesets, thoroughworts or snakeroots), thistles and buddleias in gardens.

The frequency is variable, depending on the arrival from the south. The Painted Lady might completely fail to come in some years - and most years it is only seen in few numbers. In Denmark it arrives in large numbers in average every 10th year. It was extremely numerous in 1988 and 1996. Seen and found all over the country.

Source: Michael Stoltze: Dagsommerfugle i Danmark, 1997.

The Painted Lady in other countries: Wikipedia





photo:grethe bachmann

Cranberry Fritillary / Moseperlemorssommerfugl

Boloria aquilonaris
 

Naturplan foto: stig bachmann nielsen
   
Cranberry Fritillary has a wing span of 32-42 mm. It is recognized by the multicoloured  underside of the back wing and on the tip of the back wing, which creates a sharp angle. The upperside reminds of the upperside of other fritillaries, but the front wings are pointed and narrow, and the black spots in the middle field make usually a distinct coherent curved line.

The size varies much, and some populations mostly have small individuals. The spread of the dark marking of the upperside vary and the details of the underside vary considerable as to markings and colours.

It flies middle June till late July. Its habitat is bogs with cranberry. It overwinters as a tiny caterpillar in low bog-vegetation, mostly upon the underside of a cranberry leaf. The fodderplanmt of the caterpillar is cranberry.

                                                        


photo:grethe bachmann
  
Cranberry Fritillary lives in Scandinavia, Poland, Czeck Republic, Slovakia,  Austria, Germany, Switzerland and in a few localitites in France.
In Denmark has the Cranberry Fritillary has disappeared in many places because raised bogs have been destroyed. At Fyn (Funen) and Sjælland (Zealand) are only left 3 or 4 localitites. The species have disappeared in many places in the eastern part of Jutland, but lives well in other places.

Protection:
A natural high water level has to be maintained in the rest of the raised bogs, so they do not overgrow - and the bogs must not be exposed to grazing or manuring. Many localities are marked by drainage trenches, which should be filled up - or else grow the bogs into forest, because the peat is exposed to air.

Source: Michael Stoltze, Dagsommerfugle i Danmark, 1998

photo: 
Cranberry Fritillary, bog north of Madum sø, Himmerland, July 2011: 
stig bachmann nielsen Naturplan foto: & grethe bachmann 

Small Tortoiseshell/ Nældens Takvinge

Aglais urticae



Small Tortoiseshell, here from a church yard in Himmerland




















Small tortoise shell is one of the first butterflies we see each spring . It is Denmark's National butterfly, and it is wellknown and common all over the country. The frequency  changes from year to year dependent on migrations.

Small tortoiseshell, Underside
















Small tortoiseshell (wing span 46-53 mm)  is easy to recognize with its clear colours and the white spot on the front wing. The variation is modest, but the three black spots on the front wing might be small or miss completely in very rare cases. Some rare specimen have white-yellowish colours instead of the usual clear brick red. The flying period is from last June until October in one or two generations and again in March-June after overwintering.Its habitat is everywhere, where nettle grows, especially at buildings - and the larvae's fodder-plant is nettle. (Urtica).

Small tortoiseshell and a bumble bee
The butterfly roams about and is seen everywhere. It overwinters as a grown-up butterfly in hollow trees, caves, cellars and not at least in un-heated rooms in houses. The flight is quick and whirring, and the  mating couple are often seen flying close together high up in a spirale flight. The males are territorial, since thy from their resting places fly up against all disturbing insects or other passing animals. Both sexes seek to various flowers, not at least to Hemp agrimony, Thistle and Field scabious or to Asters, Buddleias and flowering herbs in gardens. The tortoiseshell is also attracted to fermenting windfalls.

Flying tortoiseshell  and Buddleia
photo: grethe bachmann 


Silver-washed Fritillary/ Kejserkaabe

Argynnis paphia

Silver-washed Fritillary
Bjerre Skov, Horsens, Jutland

The Silver-washed Fritillary is active right now in July until late August, and each year I go to Bjerre forest by Vejle fjord to look for it. It flies in glades and sunny spots of the wood and loves the blackberry flowers. The Danish name Kejserkåbe means Emperor's Cape and this fine coloured pattern would certainly be a beautiful cape for an emperor. The Silver-washed fritillary lives in Europe except southern Spain, Scotland and the northern part of Scandinavia.

The Silver-washed fritillary butterfly is deep orange with black spots on the upper side of its wings and has a wingspan of 54–70 mm, with the male being smaller and paler than the female. The underside is green and unlike other fritillaries has silver streaks instead of silver spots, hence the name silver-washed. A rare variation in some years is a special female, which is green-black with a straw coloured base.

Unusually for a butterfly, the female does not lay her eggs on the leaves or stem of the caterpillar's food source (in this case violets) but instead one or two meters above the woodland floor in the crevices of tree bark close to clumps of violets. The larvae's fodder plants are various Violas.

The Silver-washed Fritillary is a strong flier and more mobile than other fritillaries and as such can be seen gliding above the tree canopy at high speed. Its flight is safe, fast and sailing and it seeks especially to flowers of blackberry and thistles. The mating dance, which can be watched on good localities in the morning, is very characteristic and beautiful. The male flies down under and then steep up in front of the female, who continues to fly straight on, while the male lose speed and once again dives down under and steep up in front of the female.

In Denmark Argynnis pahia is still common at Lolland-Falster, Møns Klint, Sydsjælland and Bornholm, but has during the 1970s and 1980s declined much in Jutland, at Funen, West- and North Sjælland.

Protection of the species:
This species needs many small and unfertilized glades. It thrives well in forests with extensive utilization, like in stævningsskove, (coppicing) which hold many glades in various growth. The Silver-washed Fritillary (Argynnis paphia) is on the Danish Red List as moderately endangered.



In the old days the Silver-washed Fritillary was especially connected to the stævningsskove (Coppicing woods). It is in a serious decline in Denmark, possibly caused by the lack of light-open varied forests. Until ab. 1990 it was numerous in North Jutland in Rold Skov and in Lille Vildmose, but after 1990 it is only known in a few examples, i.e. Rebild, and outside North Jutland in the forests by Vejle fjord, in Gudbjerg skov at Funen and Gribskov in North Sjælland. Still numerous populations in the rest of Sjælland, on the southern islands and Bornholm.

photo Bjerre Skov  grethe bachmann

Dragonfly/Guldsmed









Dragonfly in culture
Dragonflies have often been seen as sinister. Names like "Devil's darning needle" and "ear cutter" link them with evil or injury. A folktale from Romania says that the dragonfly was once a horse possessed by the devil. In Swedish folklore the trolls use the dragonflies as spindles when weaving their clothes. They are often associated with snakes, a Welsh name is "adder's servant".
In East Asia and among Native Americans, dragonflies have a far better reputation, one that can also be said to have positively influenced modern day views about dragonflies in most countries, in the same vein as the insect's namesake the dragon, which has a positive image in the east, but initially an association with evil in the west.

They also have traditional uses as medicine in Japan and China.In some parts of the world it is considered lucky to have a dragonfly land on you, even to the point of yielding seven years of good luck. Images of dragonflies were common in Art Noveau, especially in jewelry designs. They have also been used as a decorative motif on Fabrics and home furnishings.
About 300 million years ago dragonflies could be about 1 m long and with a wing span of ab. 1,2 m.




photo 2005/ 2009: grethe bachmann

Monday, August 12, 2019

Black-tailed Skimmer /Stor Blåpil

Orthetrum cancellatrum





Black-tailed Skimmer/ Stor Blåpil
Vest Stadil Fjord,West Jutland


Black-tailed skimmer is common in North Africa and the most of Europe. In Norway it is considered extinct. In Denmark it is known from all districts. Since Denmark is on the northern border of its area of distribution it is possible that the Danish occurence of black-tailed skimmer might be influenced by climatic changes.

The male has a blue abdomen with a black tip and transparent wings and the female has a yellowish brown body with black zigzag marks along the abdomen and the transparent wings. It is an active skimmer that patrols its territory aggressively frequently resting on patches of bare ground or stones although it will occassionally rest up in vegetation. It favours open areas of still water that has a hard not muddy substrate.

How to help dragonflies and skimmers:
Leave patches of bare ground around the edges of larger water bodies and leave cut grass and other vegetation to dry out in ‘habitat piles’. These pale areas will attract basking dragonflies. Skimmers hunt from low perches, so placing a few sticks or twigs close to the water’s edge will also encourage them.

photo Vest Stadil Fjord , DK : grethe bachmann

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Legends from Denmark - Clausholm



Much has been said about the ghosts at Clausholm. The most wellknown tale is about the 22 steps and a guest at Clausholm experienced this in 1918. He describes: "When evening came the broad castle yard between the long grey wings was filled with shadows  and the dusk was creepy. Every hour  - just when the bells died out - a figure came out from the gable, stopped in the middle and began to sing. It was the watchman who all night through sang the old watchman-songs, while the bats flew in the light of the dusk".

When people heard the echo from the songs they could sleep tight.  He told he slept tight until the latest night, but  about 30 minutes after midnight he heard the sound of long heavy steps from Anne Sophie's cabinet. In the same moment he remembered what he had promised the matron -  that he had to lock the outer door. He was sure that some tramp tried to get in to have some night lodgings, and he went with a candle in his hand to the small tapestry door where he counted the last 22 steps of the creature behind the door - he opened the door very fast - but the room was empty! But one of the double doors which was locked the evening before was now wide open.


One of the owners of Clausholm wanted to reveal the 22 steps, which were said to be the steps of Anna Sophie Reventlow (d 1743) Frederik IV 's queen of the  left hand. He sat one night in the room where the haunting took place. He placed a table with two loaded pistols beside the chair. His  servant was ready beside him. At midnight the steps started and the servant handed the pistols to the lord. The lord cried"Stop or I shoot!" but the steps went on and he fired two shots which made a terrible noise through the castle. When the echos had died out the rest of the 22 steps were heard. Since then no one has tried a ghost hunt again at Clausholm.

There is much unrest at Clausholm. In the night sounds from wagon rumbling are heard in the castle yard and clairvoyants say they can see a coach with four black horses -  some even say the horses have no heads. There is also a secret passage somewhere but no one knows where it begins or ends.

Once in the beginning of the 20th century a box was found upon the attic. It contained some documents and it was carried it down into the sitting room in order to investigate it further. But while people were searching the box an arm with a lace cuff came out from the air and took one of the documents and disappeared. The paper was never found again.


Source: Gorm Benzon, Sagnenes Danmark, Midtjylland/Himmerland/Djursland . 1984.

Saturday, May 11, 2019

Horseradish/ Peberrod


Armoracia rusticana


Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana, syn. Cochlearia armoracia) is a perennial plant of the family Brassicaceae (which also includes mustard, wasabi, broccoli and cabbage). It is a root vegetable used as a spice and prepared as a condiment.


The plant is probably native to southeastern Europe and western Asia. It grows up to 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) tall, and is cultivated primarily for its large, white, tapered root.

The intact horseradish root has hardly any aroma. When cut or grated enzymes from the now-broken plant cells break down sinigrin to produce  mustard oil, which irritates the sinuses and eyes. Grated mash should be used immediately or preserved in vinegar for best flavor. Once exposed to air or heat it will begin to lose its pungency, darken in color, and become unpleasantly bitter tasting over time.

After the first frost in autumn kills the leaves, the root is dug and divided. The main root is harvested and one or more large offshoots of the main root are replanted to produce next year's crop. Horseradish left undisturbed in the garden spreads via underground shoots and can become invasive. Older roots left in the ground become woody, after which they are no longer culinarily useful, although older plants can be dug and re-divided to start new plants. The early season leaves can be distinctively different, asymmetric spiky, before the mature typical flat broad leaves start to be developed.


History
Horseradish has been cultivated since Antiquity. According to Greek mythology, the Delphic oracle told Apollo that the horseradish was worth its weight in gold. Cato discusses the plant in his treatises on agriculture, and a mural in Pompei shows the plant. Horseradish is probably the plant mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his natural history under the name of Amoracia, and recommended by him for its medicinal qualities, and possibly the wild radish or raphanos agrios of the Greeks. The early Renaissance herbalists Pietro Andrea Mattioli and John Gerard showed it under raphanus. Its modern lonnean genus Armoracia was first applied to it by Heinrich Bernhard Ruppius in his flora Jenensis 1745, but Linneaeus himself called it Coclearia armoracia.


Medicine
Both root and leaves were used as a medicine during the Middle Ages both in fol medicine and in traditional medicine , fx as a means against fever. As a means against gouts a poultice with horseradish was placed upon the sick joint.

Kitchen
The root was used as a condiment on meats in Germany, Scandinavia, and Britain. It was introduced to North America during European colonialization; both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson mention horseradish in garden accounts.William Turner  mentions horseradish as Red Cole in his "Herbal" (1551–1568), but not as a condiment. In The Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes (1597), John Gerard describes it under the name of raphanus rusticanus, stating that it occurs wild in several parts of England. After referring to its medicinal uses, he says:
"[T]he Horse Radish stamped with a little vinegar put thereto, is commonly used among the Germans for sauce to eat fish with and such like meats as we do mustard."
The word horseradish is attested in English from the 1590s. It combines the word horse (formerly used in a figurative sense to mean strong or coarse) and the word radish.

Cooks use the terms "horseradish" or "prepared horseradish" to refer to the grated root of the pepparroot.




Horseradish sauce made from grated horseradish root and vinegar is a popular condiment in the United Kingdom and Poland.  In the UK, it is usually served with roast beef, often as part of a traditional Sunday roast; but can be used in a number of other dishes also, including sandwiches or salads. A variation of horseradish sauce, which in some cases may substitute the vinegar with other products like lemon juice  is known in Germany as Tafelmeerrettich. Also popular in the UK is  Tewkesbury mustard, a blend of mustard and grated horseradish originating in medieval times and mentioned by Shakespeare. Falstaff says: "his wit's as thick as Tewkesbury Mustard" (in Henry IV Part II). A very similar mustard, called Krensenf or Meerrettichsenf, is popular in Austria and parts of Eastern Germany.  In Russia  horseradish root is usually mixed with grated garlic and small amount of tomatoes for color.

In the US the term "horseradish sauce" refers to grated horseradish combined with mayonnaise or salad dressing. Prepared horseradish is a common ingredient in Bloody Mary cocktails and in cocktail sauce, and is used as a sauce or sandwich spread.

In Central and Eastern Europe horseradish is called khren, hren and ren (in various spellings like kren) in many Slavic languages, in  Austria, in parts of Germany (where the other German name Meerrettich is not used), in North-East Italy, and in Yiddish. There are two varieties of khreyn. "Red" khreyn is mixed with red beetroot and "white" khreyn contains no beetroot.

horseradish with beetroot
In Ashkenazi European Jewish cooking beetroot horseradish is commonly served with gefilte fish. In Transylvania  and other Romanian regions, Red beetroot with horseradish is also used as a salad served with lamb dishes at Easter. In Serbia, ren is an essential condiment with cooked meat and freshly roasted suckling pig.In Croatia, freshly grated horseradish is often eaten with boiled ham or beef.In Slovenia, and in the adjacent Italian regions and nearby Italian region of Veneto, horseradish (often grated and mixed with sour cream, vinegar, hard-boiled eggs, or apples) is also a traditional Easter dish.Further west in the Italian regions of  Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, and Piedmont, it is called "Barbaforte (strong beard)" and is a traditional accompaniment to Bollito misto. In the southern region of Basilicata it is known as "rafano" and used for the preparation of the so-called "rafanata", a main course made of horseradish, eggs, cheese and sausage. Horseradish is also used as a main ingredient for soups.

wasabi plant , painted by Asaki Kanen.

  
Relation to wasabi
The Japanese condiment wasabi although traditionally prepared from the true wasabi plant (Wasabia japonica), is now usually made with horseradish due to the scarcity of the wasabi plant. The Japanese botanical name for horseradish is seiyōwasabi or "Western wasabi". Both plants are members of the family brassicaceae.

 

 

Pests and diseases

Widely introduced by accident, "cabbageworms", the larvae of Pieris rapae, the Small White butterfly, are a common caterpillar pest in horseradish. The adults are white butterflies with black spots on the forewings that are commonly seen flying around plants during the day. The caterpillars are velvety green with faint yellow stripes running lengthwise down the back and sides. Full grown caterpillars are about 1-inch (25 mm) in length. They move sluggishly when prodded. They overwinter in green pupal cases. Adults start appearing in gardens after the last frost and are a problem through the remainder of the growing season. There are three to five overlapping generations a year. Mature caterpillars chew large, ragged holes in the leaves leaving the large veins intact. Handpicking is an effective control strategy in home gardens.



Friday, April 05, 2019

Help the Bumblebee!



People in usual have a soft spot for the bumblebee - that little plump creature is forever fighting with its helter-skelter way of flying while it is humming so lovely - a symbol of a sunny day in the garden or a summer day out in the country.

When the bumblebee-queen wakes from her winter sleep, it is early spring. The bumblebee endures low temperatures better than the honeybee, but in many places the cultural landscape is a problem for the bumblebee. It has lost terrain because of corn crops, lesser and lesser windbreaks and almost no earth banks or stone fences , which means that the bumblebee has been declining during the last decades.

A garden owner is able to help the bumblebee to get started in the early spring by i.e. planting Goat willow, crocus, Christmas rose and early flowering heather, which is good food for the bumblebee in the early spring. Nest-places can be established by leaving part of a woodpile or a bundle of twigs - or maybe build a small stone fence in the garden. A nesting box for the tit with a hole of two centimeters diameter could be a fine home for the bumble bee.

Source: Natur og Miljø, Nr. 1 March 2010, article by Jan Skriver.


Bumblebee with flower dust on its back.

photo : grethe bachmann

Friday, December 28, 2018

Classic Cocktails


     
WHISKY

Manhattan 

1/3 sweet Vermouth
2/3 American blended Whisky
1 spray Angostura bitter
2-3 ice cubes
1 cocktail cherry
orange peel.

Vermouth, whisky, angostura and ice into the mix-glass. Stir carefully with the bar-spoon so you do not "spoil" the spirits and "muddle" the drink. Put 1 cocktail cherry in the cocktail glass. Put the strainer over the mix-glass, pour into the cocktail glass. Press the orange peel over the glass with the outer side turned to the glass. The oil from the peel will lay upon the surface of the drink, giving a characteristic aroma (do not put the peel into the drink)

Rob Roy

1/4 sweet Vermouth
3/4 Scotch Whisky
6-8 ice cubes
1 orange peel

Vermouth and whisky into the mix-glass and then ice cubes Stir carefully  Strain and pour into a cocktail glass. Press the orange peel over the glass and put it into the drink




Rusty Nail

1/2 Scotch Whisky
1/2 Drambuie
2 ice cubes

Whisky and Drambuie into an old fashion glass Then ice cubes. Stir lightly.






Irish Handshake

1/2 Whisky
1/4 green Chartreuse
!/4 cream
 shake with ice







GIN


Dry Martini

3/4 gin
1/4 dry vermouth

The "original" Martini was introduced as Martinez ab. 1860. It started with 1/2 gin and 1/2 dry vermouth. The name was changed to Martini in 1890. now with 2/3 gin and 1/3 vermouth.  The change went on and the drink became more and more dry.
Each Martini fan has his own opinion about the method. Some use only a spray of vermouth,others just rub the vermouth cork on the glass. The drink is therefore by experts considered to be too raw if it is only mixed, but if it is shaked quickly with ice the Martini gets a more gentle taste and at the same time the drink is cooled in a perfect way. And there is  no need for ice cubes which would make the drink thinner.
 

Gin Fizz 

1/3 lemon juice
2/3 gin
1 spoon icing sugar
3-4 ice cubes
club soda

lemon juice, gin an sugar into the mix-glass. Stir well until the sugar is dissolved. Put ice cubes in. Shake well.. Strain through the strainer and pour into a medium size glass. Rinse off the shaker with a little club soda which is put into the glass.


Pink Lady (or Cover Club)
1/6 lemon juice
5/6 gin
1 teaspoon grenadine
1 egg-white
a little cream
3-4 ice cubes.

Lemon juice, gin, grenadine, egg-white, cream and ice cubes into the mix-glass. Shake well and strain it. Serve in a cocktail glass. 





Singapore Sling

2 ice cubes
1/8 cherry heering
1/8 lemon juice
3/4 gin
water


Ice cubes, cherry heering, lemon juice and gin into a medium size glass. Fill up with cold water and stir.
Singapore sling is said to origin from Raffles Hotel in Singapore, and some claim that the original drink besides the mentioned ingredients also include a few drops Benedictine and brandy, 1 orange slice and a little fresh mint
Some recipes say club soda instead of the cold water Then it is called Singapore rickey and not
Singapore sling.


Tom Collins

1/4 lemon juice
3/4 gin
1 1/2 tesaspoon icing sugar
2 ice cubes
club soda
1 orange slice
1 cocktail cherry

Lemon juice, gin and sugar in a whiskyglass , stir with the bar spoon until sugar is dissolved. Put in ice cubes and fill the glass up with club soda. Decorate evt. with an orange slice  and/or a cocktail cherry.
Rum is often used instead of gin and then the drink is  called Rum Collins. But bourbon, brandy, scotch whisky or vodka might also be used instead of gin. With bourbon or blended whisky the drink is called John Collins.





VODKA

Black Russian

1/4 kahlua
3/4 vodka
2-3 ice cubes.

Kahlua and vodka into the mix-glass and then ice cubes. Stir lightly. Strain and pour in a coctail glass.




          
Bloody Mary
8-10 ice cubes
2 teaspoon lemon juice
2 teaspoon tomato juice 
3/7 (evt 1/3) vodka
4/7  (evt. 2/3) vodka
2 drops Worcestershire sauce
2 drops Tabasco
fresh grounded pepper
a little celery salt

Ice cubes into the mix-glass, then lemon juice, tomato juice, vodka, worcestershire sauce and Tabasco. A little fresh grounded pepper, evt. a little celery salt upon the top.
If Bloody Mary is served on the rocks it is done as above and poured into a glass with 2-3 ice cubes.






RUM



Cuba Libre

juice from 1/4 lemon
1/3 rum
3-4 ice cubes
2/3 coca cola
a lemon slice

lemon juice, rum and ice cubes into a tall glass. Fill with coca cola, stir and decorate with 1/2 lemon slice.


Daiquiri

1/ 4 lemon juice
1 teaspoon icing sugar
1 teaspoon Cointreau or Triple sec
3/4 white rum
3-4 ice cubes
evt. a little egg.white.

Lemon juice and sugar into the mix-glass and stir with the bar-spoon until the sugar is dissolved. Add the Cointreau or Triple sec, rum and ice. Shake well, and pour through the strainer into the cocktail glass.
In order to make the Daiquire still more foamy,try to add a little egg-white before you shake.


Mai-Tai

Juice from 1/2 lemon
1/6 apricot brandy
1/6 curacao
2/3 dark Jamaica rum
3-4 ice cubes
1 cut of fresh pineapple.

Lemon juice, apricot brandy, curacao, rum and ice cubes into the mix-glass. Shake well, strain and pour into the cocktail glass. Decorate with a cut of frech pineapple





TEQUILA

Margarita I

1 lemon slice
a little coarse salt
1/5 lemon juice
4/5 tequila
1 1/2 teaspoon icing sugar
3-4 ice cubes


Rub the inside of the edge of a cooled cocktail glass with lemon slice. Put salt on a plate and dip the glass in it so a thin layer of salt is on the glass edge. Lemon juice and sugar into the mix-glass and stir until the sugar is dissolved. Add tequila and ice cubes, shake well, strain it into the salt-edged cocktail glas.




Margarita II

1 lemon slice
a little coarse salt
1/5 lemon juice
3/5 tequila
1 /5 Triple Sec
3-4 ice cubes.

Same procedure as Margarita I.





COGNAC 

Sidecar

1/3 cointreau or Triple sec
2/3 cognac
1 spoonful lemon juice
3-4 ice cubes

Cointreau or Triple sec, cognac, lemon juice and ice cubes into the mix-glass. Shake well and strain through the strainer into the cocktail glas.






Stinger
3/4 cognac
1/4 creme de menthe
3-4 ice cubes

Cognac, the white creme de menthe and the ice cubes into the mix-glass. Shake well and strain it into the cocktail glass.







CHAMPAGNE 

Champagne cocktail 

6 measure icecold champagne
1 orange peel
1 teaspoon cognac

The icecold champagne into a champagne glass. Wring the orange peel above the glass and put it in. Pour slowly the cognac in so it is floating on the champagne.








Black Velvet

1/2 cold guiness stout
1/2 cold champagne

Traditional way : Hold cold stout in one hand and cold champagne in the other. Pour into a tall cold glass at the same time. A more simple way is to first pour stout in an then fill the glass very slowly with champagne. Do not stir but drink at once before the bubbles die and the good taste disappears.   






WINE


Kirr

2 ice cubes
5/6 dry white wine
1/6 creme de cassis
1 lemon peel

Put ice cubes, white wine and creme de cassis in a large wine glass. Wring the lemon peel over the glass and put it in. Stir lightly.





Source: Vin og spiritus/Alverdens kogekunst/ 1968 -1970