Sunday, April 26, 2009

Stubber Kloster, North Jutland
Benedictine Nuns in the Middle Ages

Stubber Klosterruin on the inlet at Stubbergård Sø

Upon an inlet in a small lake in North Jutland was built a nunnery for the Benedictine-order in the early Middle Ages. This was Stubber Kloster, mentioned for the first time in 1268 - but maybe already from 1150. In the Middle Ages the inlet was an island connected to the main land with a bridge. The building was a small four- winged plan from which is left a vaulted cellar, which was built in the 1400s together with a west wing. In the beginning of the 1800s a big part of Stubber Kloster burnt down and the last rests - except the west wing addition with the cellar - was demolished in 1870. The ruin has a beautiful situation at Stubbergård Sø . From Søgårde is a road to a Parking place. From here is a 2 km long nature trail down to the ruin on the east side of Stubbergård Sø.

In the Middle Ages the hills were forested, now they are grown with junipers

How was a nun's life in a Benedictine convent ? She took the monastic vow which meant that she promised to stay inside the walls of the convent, to live a life in poverty and chastity and to subject to the will of the prioress in unconditional obedience. In the convent all sisters were equal, they wore the same dress and shared the same conditions, they shared a dormitory with simple beds or had small sparsely furnished cells. They had dinner in a joint dining hall. Only the prioress had her own flat in one of the wings and was allowed to have guests at her table. If the private nuns had visitors, the conversation had to take place through a grated window.

The pious sisters had to spend their time praying, attending service and doing housework, under which they had to remain silent. Three times in 24 hours they gathered for a hymn of thanksgiving and prayers in the church. There were 2 daily masses, confessions every fourtnight and Communion at least once a month. The convent had its own priest. He might also be a prior who together with the prioress took care of the out-turned functions of the convent and administered the estates. The prioress could not herself attend meetings at the thing or do business on behalf of the convent. Later it was common practise to let a secular businessman function as a principal of the nunnery.

The nature trail goes between two small lakes to Stubber Kloster

Actually the nuns had to do all pursuits in the household, but the rough work was undoubtedly taken over by servants. The nuns came from the top of the social class, and they were probably not the least interested in cleaning and wash. Many nunneries in Europe were wellknown educational places, but there is no documentation for this in Denmark - the education was mostly of a religious kind in the convent. Many nuns worked as teachers for children, who were placed in the convent in order to be brought up. Much of the nuns' spare time went with fine needlework, magnificent embroidery with gold and silverthread with biblical scenes. And the Benedictine nuns still obeyed the rules of St. Benedict.

But as time went by the rules began to loosen. The prioress began to attend church-meetings, and the private nuns went in the streets of the town or in the country-roads, mostly in order to visit their families, but people were shocked. In 1447 the Danish king commanded that a building should be added to the convent in Aalborg in order to make the nuns remember their vows and shut them in to keep them from going out or have any other social convention than the one which the rule and the church allowed.

The nature trail

The vow about poverty was not kept in full either. The Danish Benedictine nuns were not without possessions. There are many examples that the nuns owned estates and gold, and they had both furs and silken clothes and jewelry. The record was held by a prioress in Easebourne in England who in the 1400s brought her convent almost on the verge of bankruptcy because of her luxurious social life - and she was instructed by the bishop to sell her furs in order to rectify the economy of the convent.

The ascetic life was relieved as time went by. Benedict's rule suggested that meat must not be eaten. This was changed into that meat of two-footed animals was allowed. But later the four-footed animals joined the queue; the findings of animal bones in Ringkloster's soil tells that the nuns had feasted on delicious pork. In a convent is a list of what food and clothes the prior in the end of the 1400s had to deliver to the nuns. Four barrels of beer every week, besides bread, barley, butter, herring, fish, pork, peas, beans, beef, porpoise-pork, onion, cheese, barley- and oat grain and salt and milk from 6 cows which were in the prior's stable, oil for the Lent, free cabbage-land and barley and oat for the geese.

As much as it was possible the nuns lived like other ladies of high rank; they had furs, linen in stead of rough underclothes, and they might wear jewelry. The life has been somewhat relieved, but in the middle of the 1400s a European reform movement demanded sinful nuns to follow the rules of Benedict, and some Johannes from Holstein was sent to the convents in Jutland. In Sebber and Gudum kloster he was received well by the nuns - and they were brought back to follow their original vows, but in the other Jutland convents they did not want to have anything to do with this Johannes - so they just sat still and said nothing and let the storm sweep out.

It was the aristocracy who made the convents rich, and it was the ladies of the aristocracy who lived in the convents. The old widows could achieve a safe and comfortable old age - but to the women wo came to the nunnery when children or quite young, the life in the convent could be terribly difficult and awful. The world outside was a closed land to them. An abbedisse Elisabeth in Bergen Convent at Rügen said that her brother had better marry her to the poorest knight of all than bury her alive in the nunnery in Bergen.

The ruin

At the reformation Stubber Kloster had an estate of 146 large and lesser farms and houses in 34 various parishes in Jutland. The convent owned several water-mills, seven forests, seven moors, seven green meadows, seven scores of ploughs - and they had the patronage-rights to seven churches. In 1538 were only 11 nuns left in Stubber Kloster.

Stubber Kloster

Stubbergård Sø

Source: Skalk 6, 1972; "Nonneliv - især i Jylland", Rikke og Olaf Olsen

photo 25 April 2009: grethe bachmann, Stubber Kloster, North Jutland

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

Those Lovely Cows

Look like twins...............

I want my portrait taken too!

photo 180409: grethe bachmann, Hærvejen v. Koutrupgård
High Flyers

Two Brimstone butterflies flying high up in the air, disappearing over the treetops......

photo 180409: grethe bachmann

Monday, April 20, 2009

Bat (Flagermus) on its Wings in Daylight
Sydflagermus/ Eptesicus serotinus

Bat , Vestermølle , at Rørbæk Sø

Bats are the only flying mammals. In Denmark's fauna are 17 species, and internationally are about 1000 species; every 4th mammal on earth is a bat. The Danish name flagermus comes from Old German Fledermaus, fleder meaning flagre (fluttering, flitting).

In the 1400s the bat was called: bakke, in 1603 aftenbakke, comes from Old Norse Blaka = flagre (fluttering, flitting).

Many of the Danish bat species overwinter in Daugbjerg and Mønsted's Kalkgruber (lime pits) in Mid Jutland. The lime pits are situated in Fjends Kommune (community) , which has a bat in its city seal.

Vestermølle, at Rørbæk sø

Magics, Omens, Fairy Tales.

Some connects bats with horror and thriller movies. It might especially be caused by the gory vampire-stories, amongst those the story about the infamous count Dracula. It is known since the early Middle Ages that there was much superstition around this little mysterious animal.

In the 1400s they said that bat-blood stopped the growth of hair.
A bat has only three drops of blood, they are under the left wing, if they are rubbed upon a girl without being noticed she will forever feel attached to the one who did it.
If the blood was rubbed upon the eyelid or in the eyes then this would make you psychic, you would be able to see what was invisible to other people, both day and night.
If you drink three drops of a bat's blood you'll become invisible.

A bat's heart or head worn in a black cloth under the right arm would make one sleepless until it was removed.
Wearing a dried bat made you a winner in cardplaying. You would be a winner in games when the magic word was written with a bat's blood and black ink upon your left arm.
If a bat's head hangs in a pigeon house, the doves cannot leave it.
If more bats than usual fly in the evening the weather will be fine the next day.
If a bat flies into the house it's a death warning to the family.

Those people who live at the moon have bats as milch cows and poppies as corn. All bats and poppies on earth came originally from the moon.

In a fairy tale a princess is held prisoner in a hill, where she finds a bat, she drinks its blood and achieves strength anough to dig herself out.

A princess is an accomplice of a troll in a mountain, she flies in the night over the city in a large white robe and with long black wings.

The hall of a troll is decorated with glow-worms and skye-blue bats. (H.C.Andersen's fairy-tale: Rejsekammeraten (The Travelling companion) translated by Jean Hersholt.

Vestermølle, at Rørbæk Sø, after a short flight in the early
afternoon the bat flew up under the roof eaves.

If people might find a bat upon the ground then this might be a sick animal or a big young one who hasn't yet found out how to fly. Exhausted bats who hasn't found food can reduce their metabolism and almost hibernate. The best solution is to get the bat up on a secured place, fx on a branch or in a shelter under the roof eaves. Some bats can be infected with rabies, which can be transferred to humans in a bite. So its important to wear gloves when handling a bat.

Rørbæk Sø

Folk og Fauna 3, Dansk etnozoologi, V.J. Brøndegaard, edit. 1986.
Mønsted Kalkgruber

photo 18. April 2009: grethe bachmann

Monday, April 13, 2009

The Ertebølle Culture
Kitchen Midden/ Køkkenmødding


Ertebølle Hoved is an ab. 500 m long and up to 20 m high coastal bank with layers of moler and ashes, and it is situated in a very beautiful nature area about 17-18 km southwest of Løgstør - close to the village Ertebølle. From the top of Ertebølle Hoved is an unique view across Limfjorden to Salling, Mors, Fur and Livø. Ertebølle Hoved is a very welknown fishing place; many sea trouts have been caught here. In the cliff is a big colony of sand martins. There are exciting geological formations with layers of volcanic ashes and moler and travelling rocks from Norway and Sweden and possibilites of finding fossils of plants and animals in the ashes and moler. Of the kitchen midden are only weak traces ab. 2 km to the south, but an exhibition gives an interesting introduction to the history.

A view to Vitskøl Kloster

Ertebølle on the coast, a view to Salling

Ertebølle gave name to Ertebøllekulturen, which is the international denominator of the coastal cultures in the early part of Jægerstenalderen. It is due to that the National Museum in the 1890s excavated a giant kitchen midden at Ertebølle, consisting of oyster- and scallop/ cockleshells which revealed that people lived at this place in the early part of Jægerstenalderen. The kitchen midden is from the period 5200-4200 b.c. and represents a southern Scandinavian Stone Age culture.Findings of bones etc. suggest that some of the large settlements were residences all the year round, while the lesser settlements were seasonal. In Denmark settlements from this cultural period are common on the islands and coasts of Limfjorden and along Jutland's east coast. But it was Ertebølle which gave the name to this era.

Kitchen middens may have a thickness of several meters and a stretching of several hundred meters. From the beginning they consisted of small shell heaps growing higher and higher. Among the shells were trash from housekeeping, animal bones, tools, etc. They did not live like poor people at the settlements. Their daily food was rich in nutrients. An informative finding was a clay-pot with the burnt crusts of fish. The fish were put unskinned into the pot. It was not possible to determine the plant parts, but the pot has probably contained a fish soup with herbs, it was somewhat like the Stone Ages people's bouillabaisse. Another clay-pot contained a porridge consisting of fermented blood and flour, made of seed and hazelnuts. These and other examples were an insight to a food culture, where cooking the food did secure that the nutrients in seed, fruit, roots and vegetables were exploited, and at the same time that it maintained the juice and the fat in a good soup.

Ertebølle Hoved

The hunting people who lived in the period after ab. 6.800 b.c. is named Kongemosejægerne after a settlement in the western part of Zealand. The hunting people from ab. 5400 bc is named Ertebøllejægerne after the famous kitchen midden Ertebølle south of Løgstør at Limfjorden. The various names do not refer to immigration, since there was a population continuity of the hunting tribes. The names are just archaeological names of the various tool-traditions, which succeeded one another during Jægerstenalderen - and which made it easier to confirm the archeaological findings.

The hunting people lived in settlements at the coast, generally all year round. Here was the richest flora and the richest food supply. Large areas of fx North Jutland, North Funen and North Zealand were flooded by water and divided in islands, numerous inlets and low-watered lands. The most important food was the food from the sea. Human bones were examined, showing that fish and sea mammals were the large part of the food in Jægerstenalderen. A seasonal movement of the settlements did undoubtedly take place. There seem to have existed some specialized settlements with season-hunting for seal and furred animals, fx in East Jutland at Ringkloster (Skanderborg), where the settlement was used during several centuries, mainly inhabited in winter season.

There are only weak traces of the kitchen midden

At the coast was brushwood of alder, willow, hazel and hawthorn; ivory and honeysuckle twisted around bushes and trees. Mistletoe was common. The animal life in the settlement was marked by an almost endless richness in variation. There were large amounts of fish, there were seals, dolphins, porpoises and killers in the salt waters and the inlets. Furthermore a large amount of birds, both resident and migrating birds. The hunting included aurochs, red deer, wild boar, elk and furring animals like otter and pine marten, in the sea they were hunting for fish, sea mammals and sea birds. The hunting in the hinterland gave a large bag of important raw materials and valuable meat. People at the coast might also have had a contact to inland settlements.

The climate was mild, subtropical. The mildness of the climate had also an influence on the conditions between the land and the sea. The ocean continued to rise, caused by the melting down of ice at the poles. (Since the ocean reached its maximum in the Atlantic period it has sunk ab. 3 m during the next 7000 years caused by a general fall in temperature). The rise of the water was not regular. Since the hunting people's settlements mostly were placed in connection to water, the water level was of great importance. The settlements were moved to keep pace with the coast advance or return. The population grew and grew, which increased the need for food; it weighed heavily on the resources, and in the end it became a necessity to find a permanent solution. And the agriculture came to ab. 4000 b.c.

The changed conditions between land and sea gave the archeologists great possibilities for studying the settlements at the coasts. They were mostly situated in small quiet inlet areas and inner low-lands. In the northern part of Denmark in North Jutland the kitchen middens are found in raised land. In the southern part of Denmark the kitchen middens are below water.

Mini-museum in front and a large Stenalder Center behind the trees.

A mini-museum close to the cliff describes about the kitchen midden and the geology of the area. A few hundred meters from here is the exhibition of the Stenaldercenter which describes the nature in and around Ertebølle ab. 6-7000 years ago and how people lived, furthermore are several archaeological findings etc. A reconstructed settlement gives examples of how the huts from that period might have looked, and the visitors can see how flint was made into axes and other tools, and they can participate in activities like archery and skin tanning etc.

Gyldendal og Politikens Danmarkshistorie 1988, Bind 1. "I begyndelsen", af Jørgen Jensen.
Bodil og Heino Døygaard: "Se dit Land Danmark". Skarv. Høst og Søn. 1996
Politikens store Danmarksbog, af Søren Olsen, 2003

photo 9. April 2009: grethe bachmann

Friday, April 10, 2009

Wool for Nesting

In some parks, here in Mindeparken, Århus , wool are placed in bushes in quiet areas. Although there were only two meters between us the bird still came gathering wool for its nest. It did not care at all that someone was watching it so close by.

photo 10. april 2009: gb, Rømerhaven, Mindeparken, Århus

Sunday, April 05, 2009

Mysteries - 6) Gurre Castle Ruin

 The Wild Hunt

Gurre is an exciting place with a medieval atmosphere even in daylight, but on dark nights mysterious things happen at times . If you are at Gurre on a dark night you might hear the splash of oars in the water and the muted sound of voices, it's coming closer and closer, but no boat and no passengers are showing. Everything grows even more mysterious when you consider that there is no water surrounding Gurre. But what today is dry land was in the Middle Ages a lake, and the castle was situated upon a small islet out in the lake.

The invisible boat is a peaceful experience. It was heard by various people, lonely night wanderers, people walking their dogs, larger groups , once a group of 23 people. Usually the boat is heard in summer on quiet warm evenings, and the experience is neither scaring or spooky, just a little strange. People claim that another ghostly event feels quite dangerous after they had been witnessing the wild hunt of king Valdemar.

King Valdemar Atterdag was very fond of Gurre Castle. He used it as a hunting seat and stayed there as often as he could. He died at the castle in 1385, but did not rest quietly in his grave. He once said that if he could have Gurre then God could have Paradise to himself. God doomed Valdemar to be hunting in the forests around Gurre until Judgment Day.

It's not a funny experience to meet king Valdemar. He's accompanied by awesome hounds with shining eyes and fire from their jaws. This is pure folktale, but there are stories from people who claim they have seen or heard king Valdemar and his hunting dogs. Yet he's somewhat worn out during the latest years since it seems that he's no more seen but only heard!

In February 1982 king Valdemar and his hunting party was heard by two bird-watchers from Copenhagen who went to Gurre to look for owls. After a short search they found a very active tawny owl who didn't mind to be studied while sitting in a tree next to the road leading down to Gurre castle ruin. A few minutes later the owl grew silent. It straightened up looking directly down the road to the ruin. It was obvious that it had noticed something, and a few seconds later the two bird-watchers heard the baying of dogs and the distinct sound of galloping horses. The sound grew louder and louder, but no matter how intensely the two witnesses stared down the dark road they saw nothing.

Considering the late hour it was not very likely that people were out riding accompanied by dogs. At last the sound was so loud that it was "like standing close to a racecourse". After a minute the sound disappeared and the two witnesses hurried home. In the meantime the owl had disappeared, probably frightened by the sound, which existed not only in the imagination of the two bird-watchers. It's rather funny. Bird-watchers have played an important role in three cases here. But then they are out at times where others are sitting in their cosy homes enjoying a quiet night by the TV, maybe watching a horror-movie!

Sheep grassing peacefully at Gurre.

The story about Gurre and king Valdemar Atterdag is wellknown in Danish Literature, and the texts of I.P.Jacobsen have been interpreted in music by Arnold Schönberg in Gurre-Lieder

See also this: Gurre Slotsruin

"Det mystiske Danmark", en rejseguide til spøgelser, uhyrer og andre mærkværdigheder.
Lars Thomas, Aschehoug Dansk Forlag, 2005

photo 2008: grethe bachmann, Gurre, Zealand.

Mysteries - 5) Koldinghus

 Icy Cold Cellar and The Man with the Iron Hand

Koldinghus by the Castle Lake

The long staircase leading deep down into the cellar of Koldinghus is not a problem in the tourist season. But some people have made attempts going down alone. It is said that most of them came up in faster than an Olympic 100 meters run. The atmosphere in the cellar is very special. The thick walls deaden all sounds. There is a half darkness and the air is stuffy and dusty. Some claimed that they suddenly was in an area where the air was cold as ice, others had the feeling that they were not alone. Someone stood behind them, breathing them in the neck. No one of those who made the bold attempt wanted to go down there again.


The legends from Koldinghus are similar to ghost-legends in other castles. In the 1500s a vasal at Koldinghus, Jørgen Rosenkrantz had a lovely young daughter, who had not less than three proud knights for suitors. It was in 1558. She turned down all three , and when her father discovered that she was in love with a young carver, who had been working at the castle, he went furious. He arrested the carver and forced his daughter to witness his execution in the court yard. Three days later he celebrated a ball at the castle where he ordered nine knights to dance with his daugher until she dropped dead. She succeed in dancing with all nine knights and still be alive - and at last Jørgen Rosenkrantz had to dance with his daughter until she died in his arms.

A very cruel story, but not quite true. Jørgen Rosenkrantz was a vasal at Koldinghus in 1558, but he was a childless bachelor. It is a reality though that a lady named Gjertrud Kaas died during a ball at Koldinghus in 1590. Gradually those thwo stories have been mixed ,but they have influenced the legend and increased the thrilling atmosphere in the massive castle.

The court yard

The church room

Christian 3's queen, Dorothea, cannot let go of the contact with the castle she was so fond of, so she's walking the rooms and corridors every night to see if everything is in order. People claim that they have either seen her or heard the noise from her bunch of keys. She's harming no one, but if they won't step aside, she stands still and send them a very fierce look. So they say!

Maybe it is Dorothea who is the so-called "Man with the Iron Hand". This invisible power has a habit of beating the hat off people who walk through the church room. There is much force in the blows so people thought it had to be a man. But maybe Dorothea gets angry when someone walks through the church? Maybe it's one of those powerful bishops, who's haunting the guests in the church room? Who knows. No one can prove anything at all.

Koldinghus is situated upon a hill in the middle of the town Kolding by one of the lakes of the town. Today Koldinghus is a museum. Open daily 10-17, except closed at Christmas and New Year.

See: Koldinghus Museum

Next and last: 6) Gurre, " The Wild Hunt."

"Det mystiske Danmark", en rejseguide til spøgelser, uhyrer og andre mærkværdigheder.
Lars Thomas, Aschehoug Dansk Forlag, 2005.

photo 2004: grethe bachmann, Koldinghus, Southeast Jutland

Friday, April 03, 2009

Mysteries - 4) Borreby Slot

"The Alchemist and the Doppelgänger"

When Valdemar Daa in the 1600s owned Borreby he had lots of trouble with his economy. Like so many others at that time he experimented with the alchemy in the hope that he could grow rich by making gold himself. Like so many others he did not succeed. He had to leave Borreby and died a ruined man in 1691.

Hans Christian Andersen wrote a compassionate fairy-tale " Vinden fortæller om Valdemar Daa og hans døtre". (translated by Jean Hersholt, see: Valdemar Daa ). Borreby slot is marked by the medieval history about Valdemar Daa. He is said to be walking restlessly in the cellars and corridors of Borreby, still thinking and experimenting, stubbornly trying to make gold.

Borreby was taken over by one of Valdemar Daa's neighbours, Ove Rand, and his lucky star wasn't shining either. People said he had sold his soul to the Devil in order to gain richness. He died in 1685 after having seen a big black dog in his study. The dog was staring at him with flaming eyes and then disappeared through the wall. People were convinced that the dog came for him when he died and brought him to a special hot place.

The dog is still at Borreby, but now outside. As late as in 2003 a bird-watcher , a banker , was visiting Borreby Mose close to Borreby Slot, a popular bird-locality. He was looking in his binoculars and accidentally discovered a black dog among the trees by the castle. At first he didn't wonder about this, but then the dog turned its head and stared directly at him although he was about 200-300 m away. He got so scared when he saw those shining eyes of the dog that he let go of the binocular. But then he tried to look again and the dog had disappeared. He hasn't seen it since although he often is visiting the place.

It can be scaring to visit Borreby at night. Sometimes screams are heard from the moat. It sounds as if someone has fallen into the water and is now is fighting for his life. People who wanted to rescue the drowning man, couldn't find anyone in distress. Is it the echo from a long time forgotten event..........?

One of the latest residents at Borreby was Frederik Berregård who died in1805. He had some trouble with the supernatural too, but it was his own abilities he couldn't control. He was a Doppelgänger. People saw him fx supervising in the field, and at the same time he was seen sitting by the window in his study. Belive it or not!

Borreby Castle is situated in Southwest Zealand 3 km south of Skælskør. Public access to the park in summer.

Next: 5) Koldinghus, "Cold in the Cellar and the Man with the Iron Hand."

"Det mystiske Danmark", en rejseguide til spøgelser, uhyrer og andre mærkværdigheder.
Lars Thomas, Aschehoug Dansk Forlag, 2005.

photo 2007: grethe bachmann, Borreby, Zealand

Thursday, April 02, 2009

Mysteries - 3) Voergård Slot

The Hovering Ghost

The legend says that fru Ingerborg Skeel every New Year's Night comes a crowfoot closer to Voergård, and when she reaches her own magnificent building work, then it will break down.
She's the most wellknown ghost at Voergård. She lived in the 1500s and she was the building master of the beautiful Renaissance castle. She loved to do inspections in the whole building and she still does. Several groups have seen Ingeborg Skeel looking into the window as if she is standing in the air outside. During her lifetime there was an external gallery all the way round the building, and of course she's not aware of the new conditions!

Ingeborg Skeel has got a very bad reputation . She was said to be flogging and torturing ther peasants and servants, she cut the fingers of a thievish child, she threw her building master in the moat and brought a ship aground on her beach in order to plunder it. Known documents tells quite another story. She was a very diligent and enterprising woman , and she was actually very charitable and took care of the poor people in her district.

As a ghost she's very noisy. The top corridor in the east wing is equipped with a door in both ends, and these doors must never be closed, or else she makes a terrible noise in the night if there's no free passage. Being a ghost she should be able to walk through doors shouldn't she?

Like in many other haunted places there is an indelible blood spot at Voergård, it is showing upon the floor in the north east tower room. When the floor was grinded in connection to a renovation and a laquer in 1997, the blood spot came up again. After every new grinding the spot turns up again and again.

Deep down in the cellar is Rosedonten, the prison. Here is a scary monster which can cause the most hardened criminal to break down and confess all his crimes after just one night in the dark. Rosedonten is very small and stuffy, so the monster might probably be a hallucination caused by lack of oxygen.

However an old tradition continues. Every New Year's Night a bundle of straw is put into the prison room to the monster to keep him calm.

Voergård Castle is situated in Vendsyssel in North Jutland, ab. 12 km southwest of Sæby. Open daily in holidays and in the summer season. A fine art museum. Public access to the park all year.

See: Voergård Slot

Next: 4) Borreby Slot, The Alchemist and the Doppelgänger

"Det mystiske Danmark", en rejseguide til spøgelser, uhyrer og andre mærkværdigheder.
Lars Thomas, Aschehoug Dansk Forlag, 2005.
"Vore Gamle Herregårde", Per Eilstrup, Kay Nielsen, Holger Rasmussen, Forlaget Union

photo 2003: grethe bachmann, Voergård, Vendsyssel, North Jutland