Sunday, December 21, 2008
During Iron Age the gods were of a more personal character. People built gudehuse/Hov = temples and carved the pictures of the gods in wood. The significance of the gods was more like a relation to the people. The god Thor became a guardian of human life in all forms and not least of the peace in the things and the sepulchral monuments, he killed the evil vætter (demons) with his stone hammer Mjølner .The young Balder became a special good too.The west German tribes worshipped another god whose fame spread stronger and stronger to the North. This was Odin , and elderly man, always hunting on wild travels, riding the storm horse. In the storm he takes the souls from the dead along to the dark land of the dead, Hel, which becomes a sinister and disgusting woman, or they are brought to Valhal, the valley of the those killed in the war. He is the god of those killed in the war "Valfader and the giver of victory" and he was therefore especially envoked by warriors. In this way every nature force was invented into a good and supernatural human. The reasonable friendly gods were called Aser.
In fjeldene/the mountains lived the huge misanthropic jætter (giants), in lesser rocks and stones lived the little dwarfs, the finest of all blacksmiths. In the meadows lived elves and fairies. In lakes, water streams, everywhere lived supernatural vætter which humans had to beware of.
But also dead people did live. They returned to the surviving, especially at night and weighed heavily upon them and scared them in their dreams. In the ancient language it was not called "I dream" - it was called "I dream me", i.e. "it weighs heavily upon me". When a father died the son had to give him jewels, a horse and a ship with him in the grave hill where the dead now had to live. He had to bring sacrifices at the grave so the dead would not grow angry and injure him. From all these spirits in the hills, in the air, from ghosts and dreams wise men and women could find out secrets and legends, make magic and be fortune tellers. They were sitting out in the open on sacred nights mostly on cross roads to receive messages from the spirits.
The Nordic people knew of no special priesthood. The worldly chief herse (the leader of the district, the earl or the king were at the same time a sacrificial priest.) The sacrifice was always bloody , animals as a rule, sometimes humans, prisoners of war or trælle (slaves). The Blot (sacrifice) took place in sacred places , in a holy grove or a temple, a hov. The blood was spread on the walls of the temple or over the crowd. Then there was a feast and the drinking horns were emptied sending a message to the gods about the wish for a good harvest and luck in war etc. Sometimes people gathered from big areas for the big Fællesblot (common blot) , either when spring came or when summer ended - and especially in midwinter, when the sun Freyr returned promising light, warmth and fertility.
A Greek historian Prokopios from the 500s tells much about the North. He knew the tribe of the Danes upon the Jutland peninsula and says that the finest sacrifice in their opinion was the very first prisoner of war. They sacrificed to the highest god(Odin) and they did not just sacrifice the prisoner, they also hang him in a tree or threw him upon thorns or tortured him in other ways. Songs and legend tell about the god's/aserne's fight against the jætterne (giants)- especially during the Viking Period there was a rich poetry describing the gods, which is preserved by the Icelandic people in den ældre Edda and den Yngre Edda.
photo 2005/2006 grethe bachmann
Wednesday, December 17, 2008
Jul/ Christmas the beginning
In Denmark the pagan solstice feast became a Christian celebration from about 1000. The Church commanded to celebrate the birth of Christ on December 25. And like on other occasssions the custom had to start the evening before. People continued though to arrange traditional old julefeasts with drinking and violent games. Therefore a strict law was carried through by the Church. There had to be absolute peace and quiet during the Christmas days, thirteen days from December 25 till January 6. The population did not quite understand these restrictions, they had always been eating and drinking and having fun during the jule period - there was nothing wrong about that in their opinion.
The clergy also made an attempt to change the word Jul into Kristmesse (Christ Mass) but in Denmark the old name Jul continued to exist. From year 1200 Jul was named Christmas in England. For a long time the Danish jul was a mixture of pagan and catholic belief. People went to church - but after church they went home to celebrate solstice in the old way. In 1536 came the reformation and about 150 years later the pietism, the strict doctrine about piety. The old pagan marked jul was partly suppresssed.
Keldby Church, Møn
Old Customs in the village
December 25 was one of the most peaceful and quiet days of the year where people went to church to sacrifice - not to the pagan gods - but to the vicar and the parish clerk. The rest of the day they stayed indoors having a cosy time. No one was visiting.
December 26 was a day of fun in the village. When the midnight bell stroke between the 25-26 december people pretended to go to sleep, but no one really slept - it was important to get up early to avoid being the last one. The last one up was given the nickname St. Stephan's Fool the next year. As soon as everyone was up and dressed Stephan had to be chased out. The farm-guys had to muck out and sweep the stables, but before that the farm-girls had hidden the dung-barrow and the other tools. The guys had been busy hiding the girls' brooms, scrubbing brushes and other cleaning tools. When the girls finally found their tools and had finished cleaning the guys messed up the floor so they had to start all over again - and it all happened in a good-natured manner. At last they all stopped teasing and finished chasing out Stephan in house and stable and went seeking adventure in the village. If they came to a place where people were still sleeping they blocked the door and the chimney. And if they wanted to go further the guys dragged carriage parts and tools up upon the roof ridge. Such fun is today connected to New Year's Eve. When the young people came home after the fun the farm wife had baked a big square Stephan's cake to the hungry guys and girls.
Keldby Church, Møn
December 27 on the third day of Christmas people began little by little their daily work, but the servants had the day off from noon and went out to "Julestue". The farm girls might on Dec. 27 invite the farm-guys to a "pigegilde" (girls' party) with games and dance. In this feast the girls were allowed to - without losing respect - ask the guys for a dance.
December 28 was a memorial day for the Slaughter of the Innocents. This day the farms had to do their necessary daily work - although the day was considered a half church festival. In the afternoon and evening there was a farm guys party where the guys arranged a feast for the young farm girls.
Elmelunde Church, Møn
December 29. On the 5th day of Christmas the "Julestue" continued, people arranged games and plays. The entertainment often delivered a sting against the Church and the Lord of the Manor. If they played "Julebisp" (Christmas bishop) one was dressed as a bishop in a white shirt and the others sacrificed nuts and apples to him. If the "bishop" was not satisfied with the gifts he slapped them in the face with a wet dishcloth.
December 30. On the 6th day of Christmas it was still Julehelg /(a holy Christmas day) -but first after people had finished the farm work. In the evening they gathered for playing Julebuk. (billy-goat) "Bukken" was a guy who was dressed up as a billy-goat - or as the devil himself. He went from farm to farm making fun and saying odd sounds. The children were scared of this odd creature.
Many games from those days have not been mentioned but they were often crude or had magic and erotic overtones.
Fanefjord Church, Møn
December 31. This evening there was a real feast on every farm - like on Christmas Eve - but New Year's Eve was much more turbulent. The evening meal was almost like on Christmas Eve but in some places they had also dried cod and the dining table was decorated with a two-branched candle. After dinner it was about going out to have some fun. First the farm girls went off and then the farm guys. They were busy - they had to go to every farm in the village and surroundings. If they had an old gun they fired blanks - or else they brought empty buckets and rumlepotter (jars covered with pig's bladder and with a quill stucked in). When they rubbed the quill the pot gave an infernal row. In some places people dressed up and everywhere was lots of noise and racket. The farm people had to catch all the young trouble makers and invite them into their house to have lots of æbleskiver (apple cakes fried in a special pan) , beer and snaps.
Voer Church, Jutland
Source: Ruth Gunnarsen: Familiens Højtider i gamle dage.
Photo 2002/2003: grethe bachmann
Monday, December 15, 2008
Sunday, December 14, 2008
A beautiful ship by Møns Klint
The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and all science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe is as good as dead; his eyes are closed.
photo 2007: gb
The word Jul is mentioned the first time in Haraldskvadet from about 870, where Thorbjørn Hornklofi sings about Harald Hårfager:
Ude på havet vil han drikke jul
den højtstræbende konge
om han skal kunne herske
Upon the sea he shall drink jul
the ambitious king
if he shall be able to rule.
This source and other later sources show that jul in the ancient period and in the Middle Ages was a solstice feast, where people celebrated the returning of the light with drinking bouts. The vikings had their "juleblot" where they sacrificed to their pagan gods, drinking to their honour - partly thanking and partly securing a good growth and a good profit on their raids in the year to come.
As early as year 400 the Church Father Johannes Chrysostomos mentions the Christian Jul as "the mother of all feasts." Although it was celebrated as the birth of Christ he was hardly born in December - but the early leaders of the church knew that it was easier to spread Christianity if they showed some tolerance to the customs and traditions which pagan people had worshipped for generations. Therefore the Roman Saturnalia-feast in December was in year 354 linked to the birth of Christ and thereby turned into a Christian celebration.
source: Ruth Gunnarsen: Familiens højtider i gamle dage.
photo 2004: grethe bachmann, Mindeparken , Århus
The Last School Day in the Old Days
Old village school, Hodde, Jutland/photo 1999: gb
Until the reformation 1536 the apostle Thomas was celebrated with a mass every year on December 21st, which was named Sct. Thomasdag. Almost up to the present the 21st of December was celebrated in a Danish school. This day was the last day at school before the Christmas vacations. The pupils - who else were taught a strict discipline every day - were allowed to chatter, make noise and play as much as they liked.
The evening before they were prepared for the feast day with a thorough bath, a haircut and they had a look at their fine new Sunday's best. Next morning on the 21st they put on their new clothes and had to hurry as much as possible to be at school as the very first - for if they were the last pupil arriving on that special day they would get a nickname and be teased in a good-natured manner the whole next year.
The schoolroom had been cleaned the day before, which was rather unsual at that time. The pupils brought gifts to the teacher like a few skilling (Old Danish coin), Christmas bread, beer, snaps, candles and other natural produce which actually was some sort of bonus or supplement to the teacher's miserable pay. In the village school the vicar and his wife arrived with cakes and æbleskiver (round apple cakes fried in a special pan) , with some mead for the girls and some syrup snaps for the older boys. All the pupils had their yearly grade book and if the report was good they showed it to everyone hoping to get a few pence.
source: Ruth Gunnarsen/ Familiens højtider i gamle dage
Thursday, December 11, 2008
The Jute Horse, Østervold, Randers
The sculptor Helen Schou ( 1905-2006) is the creator of this great Jute Horse, which was placed in Randers in November 1969. The impressing bronze horse is 5,5 m tall, 6 m long and weighs 4,5 ton. The casting of the statue was made in Berlin.
She was the only Danish woman who created two big monumental works with a horse as the theme. The second big work was an equestrian statue of Christian X outside the cathedral in Århus. Her interest in using the horse in her art work came natural since she had been a horsewoman since childhood and was skilled in dressage. She not only drew anatomic studies of the horse, but participated in horse-dissections at Landbohøjskolen (Agricultural College in Copenhagen) . She was very interested in European equestrian statues and collected a knowledge about them which was a great advantage to her later. She created several big monumental works but also fine statuettes, mostly horses but also other animals, especially dogs like boxers and dachshounds. She also made several fine portraits and reliefs.
photo december 2008: grethe bachmann
Dachshound loses a stick in the brook
Mom gets hold of it with her umbrella
A blind bloke walks into a shop with a guide dog. He picks the dog up and starts swinging it around his head. Alarmed a shop assistant calls out: "Can I help, sir?" "No thanks," says the blind bloke. "Just looking."
photo: grethe bachmann, Moesgård Forest, Århus
Tuesday, December 09, 2008
The name Amaryllis comes from Greek mythology. It was a name of a girl who won the heart of a shepherd-boy heart by creating a new and enchanting flower for him. Hippeastrum is the Latin name and means the Horseman's Star (Danish: Ridderstjerne). A dean of Manchester William Herbert chose the name in 1837 - maybe because the flower had a striking resemblance to the Morning Star, a medieval weapon used by horsemen.
Hippeastrum is a genus of many species and hybrids and native to tropical and subtropical regions like South America, Mexico and the Carribean. They are popularly known as Amaryllis. The first commercial breeders of hippeastra were Dutch growers who imported several species form Mexico and South America the 18th century. Today the beautiful flower is widespread and very popular. The colours vary from red, pink, peach and white flowers to two-coloured flowers like green-pink, red-white.
photo 2008: gb
Sunday, December 07, 2008
Wednesday, December 03, 2008
Sunday, November 30, 2008
Oudrup Hede, Jutland
The real folk-tales have existed for thousands of years, only for the last two hundred years some of these treasures have been collected by folklorists before they were completely forgotten.
The folklorist Evald Tang Kristensen (1843-1929) was the most important Danish collector of folk-tales. He was a school teacher, but at that time a school teacher got a lousy pay, so in summer he had to take care of his little farm too. Only in winter he spent his time walking on foot from place to place in all kinds of weather, mile after mile across the heath in rain and mud, overnighting by the peasants. He was able to make shy people open up and tell him their stories.
For more than 50 years he collected folk-tales, ballads, fairy-tales, legends, history and biographies from about 6.500 informants, mainly from the poor. The result were many books , in the first many years financed by himself and printed in small impression. The interest for folklore was limited at that time, but later it became highly treasured and still is. We owe him a lot. In 1888 he got some aid from the Danish State, and he gave up his job as a school teacher devoting his life to folklore collection. This little folk-tale is told to him by a peasant woman Inger Olesdatter from Øster Ørum near Horsens. It is from the book "Eventyr fra Jylland II".
Girl with sheep, Heather Hill
Once upon a time was a little girl, named Virp, and people called her Tiny-Virp. When she had to go out to work, she got a job in the vicarage. She had to take care of the sheep out into the heath. The first day she came out there she saw a silver ram, when she sat down to eat her food, it stood upon a hill. She drove the sheep together and then she run up and took the silver ram and ran home to the vicarage with it. When she came into the yard, they closed and shuttered the gate, while Tiny-Virp went singing in the yard.
Clump, clump,clump! The big troll came to the gate and said:
"Listen, little Virp! did you take my silver ram?"
"Yes, I did!"
"Will you come more often?"
"You never can tell," she said.
Then they let a canonshot sound through the gate. Clump, clump, clump! then the big troll ran.
The next day, when she came out into the heath with her sheep, she sat upon the hill to eat her food. Then she saw a golden ram, it stood upon the hill. Virp drove the sheep together, took the golden ram and ran home to the vicarage with it. And they closed and shuttered the gate, while Tiny-Virp went singing in the yard.
Clump,clump,clump! then the big troll came.
"Listen little Virp! Did you take my silver ram and my golden ram?"
"Yes, I did."
"Will you come more often?"
"You never can tell" said Tiny-Virp.
Then they let a canonshot sound through the gate. Clump, clump, clump! then the big troll ran.
The third day, when she came out upon the heath with her sheep, it rained cats and dogs. When she sat down to eat her food, she saw that the big troll's old mother was out by the well to fetch some water, and she wore a light cape, and it repelled water, and it shone so that it was light all around. Then Tiny-Virp run and pushed the old woman down into the well, but she took the light cap and wore it, and then she run home to the vicarage, after she had driven the sheep together. They closed and locked the gate and Tiny-Virp went singing in the yard.
Clump, clump, clump! then the big troll came.
"Listen, little Virp! did you take my silver ram and my golden ram and my light cape and pushed my mother into the well?"
"Yes I did," said Tiny-Virp.
"Will you come more often?"
"You never can tell."
Clump, clump, clump! then the big troll ran, when they fired a canonshot out through the gate.
The fourth day when she came out into the heath with the sheep, the weather was fine, and the troll's window was open. In the windowsill was a jingle stick, he jingled it when he summoned all the big trolls. She took it when she sat down to eat her food. She drove the sheep together and run home to the vicarage with the jingle stick. They both closed and shuttered the gate and then Tiny-Virp went singing in the yard.
Clump, clump, clump! then the big troll came running.
"Listen little Virp! Did you take my silver ram and my golden ram and my light cape and pushed my mother into the well and now took my jingle stick?"
"Yes I did," said Tiny-Virp.
"Will you come more often?"
"You never can tell," she said, and then they let a canonshot sound through the gate. Then the big troll got scared, and clump, clump, clump! he ran again.
The fitfth day when she came out into the heath with her sheep, the big troll's window was open, and a gold harmonica lay inside. Now she reached out for it, but she was cheated, for the big troll stood inside and took her hand and drew her inside. Now he had caught her and he wanted to slaughter her as a punishment, because she had taken all those things from him. But he thought she was to skinny for slaughtering, she had to be fed up. So he put her into a dark room, and there she had to live from prunes and raisins and black sausage, then he thought she would be fat. When some days had passed by, she had to put a finger out through a hole he had drilled in the door, then he would prick it with a needle, so he could see the blood, if she then was fat enough. But she wrapped sausage skin around her finger so that the blood could not come out, and it did not come out, no matter how much he pricked.
Finally he decided that she had to be slaughtered. He asked his wife to light a fire in the oven and fry Tiny-Virp there, while he went around to summon the big trolls for a feast. He had to do it now since Tiny-Virp had taken his jingle stick.
The wife began to light a fire in the oven, and she fired much more than when she was baking. Then she asked little Virp if it was hot enough.
"No it is not at all hot enough," said Tiny-Virp.
Then she fired much more.
Yes, it was not hot enough yet, but now it had to do. Then Tiny-Virp had to go into the oven, but she did not understand, she said, how to do it. If just the woman would show her. Then the woman had to show her. She sat down upon the baking spade and told her how to sit. But then Tiny-Virp took hold of the baking spade, pushed the woman into the oven and closed the oven door.
Then she ran home to the vicarage and said that they had to bring all the carriages they had, in order to get hold of the big troll's gold and silver, before he came home. For now no one was at home in the hill. Then they came with eight carriages, seven pair of horses and a pair of bullocks for the eighth carriage. Then they took all the goods, the big troll had. And at last Tiny-Virp took the wife's night cap and filled it with hay, and she put it in the bed and pulled the duvet over it, so that only the top was to see, and it looked as if it was the wife who was in the bed. Then they drove home to the vicarage and put shutters for the gate doors.
Soon after the big troll came home, but he could not find his wife. Finally he thought that he saw her lying in the bed for he could see the tip of her night cap.
"Now I am here," the big troll shouted. She did not answer.
"Did you fry Tiny-Virp?" No, she did not answer.
Then he hooted louder:
"Did you fry Tiny-Virp?" No, there was no answer.
"If you do not answer me then you shall get a slap in the head!" But it did not help at all.
Then he slapped the night cap so that the hay fell out all over the floor, for now he was angry.
But if it was not wrong before then it became wrong now, for he could see that there was some madness about it. He ran to take a look at the oven. There he found his wife who was completely fried.
Clump, clump, clump! then he ran to the vicarage. Then Tiny-Virp went singing in the yard.
"Listen Tiny-Virp! Did you take my silver ram and my golden ram and my light cape and pushed my mother into the well and took my jingle stick and stole all my silver and gold and pushed my wife into the oven?"
"Yes I did," Tiny Virp said.
"Will you come more often?"
"There is nothing more to come for," she said, and then they fired a canonshot through the gate, so that the big troll got scared. Clump, clump, clump! it said, and then he ran home.
Source: Evald Tang Kristensen "Eventyr fra Jylland II" (edited & published 1998)
(This folk-tale Tiny-Virp (Danish title : Bitte-Virp) is translated by Grethe Bachmann for this blog)
photo 2007 & 2008: grethe bachmann, Heather Hill, Zealand
Saturday, November 29, 2008
Thursday, November 27, 2008
A really good idea
The house is filled with computers and TVs and other polluting things, but plants can help us to improve the air in our home.
Plants provide a natural, cost effective way to clean indoor air and combat "sick-building syndrome". In a 24-hour period a spider plant can remove 80% of formaldehyde pollutants from an enclosed room. So cleaning the air in the house can be as simple as buying a few houseplants - and almost all plants are powerful air cleaners. The plant acts as a filter by removing pollutants from the air and replacing the air with oxygen in a more pure form. Pollotuin in the home can give burning eyes, itchy throat or other respiratory problems .The three harmful pollutants commonly found in today's homes are benzene, formaldehyde, and trichloroethylene (TCE). 15 to 20 houseplants can purify the interior of an 1,800 square foot house.
Benzene is a commonly-used solvent and is found in tobacco smoke, gasoline, inks, oils, paint, plastic, and rubber. It's also used in the manufacture of detergents, pharmaceuticals, and dyes. Exposure to benzene can cause dizziness, nervousness, headaches, and anemia; and it irritates both the eyes and skin.Plants that remove benzene are: Gerbera Daisy, Chrysanthemum, Spathiphyllum (Peace Lily), Chamaedorea sefritzii (Bamboo Palm), Dracaena 'Warneckei', Hedera helix (English ivy), and Sansevieria (Snake Plant).
Formaldehyde is found in virtually in all indoor environments. Major sources include insulation, particleboard, and paper products. Many cleaning products also contain formaldehyde. Formaldehyde irritates the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory system and can increase risk of asthma. Plants that remove formaldehyde are: Chamaedorea sefritzii (Bamboo Palm), Dracaena 'Janet Craig', Sansevieria (Snake Plant), Dracaena Marginata, Spathiphyllum (Peace Lily), Chlorophytum (Spider Plant), Epipiremnum aureum (Golden Pothos), and Philodendron scandens `oxycardium' (Heartleaf Philodendron).
Trichloroethylene has a wide variety of industrial uses. It is used in inks, paints, varnishes, and adhesives.Plants that remove trichloroethylene are: Gerbera daisy, Chrysanthemum, Dracaena Marginata, Spathiphyllum (Peace lily), Dracaena 'Janet Craig', and Chamaedorea (Bamboo palm).
Most of the plants listed below evolved in tropical or sub-tropical forests, where they received only light filtered through the taller trees. Over time these air-cleaning plants adapted to lower light conditions, so most of them are perfectly suited to the light conditions we can offer them in our homes.
Aglaonema modestum (Chinese evergreen) : One of the easiest houseplants to grow and tolerates low light. Water thoroughly and let the soil dry out between watering.
Chamaedorea sefritzii (Bamboo Palm) Thrives in medium to bright light and likes average room temperatures with lots of humidity. From Spring to Fall, water well and then moderately during Winter.
Chrysantemum: Keep them cool and moist. If in bud, fertilize every two weeks.
Chlorophytum comosum (Spider Plant)(Væddeløber):Likes average temperatures with bright light, but can tolerate medium light. Water thoroughly and let the soil dry out between watering.
Dracaena 'Janet Craig' (Corn Plant), Dracaena `Warneckii' (Striped Dracaena):Prefers bright light, but not direct sun. Water thoroughly Spring through Winter and let the soil dry out between watering.
Dracaena marginata (Red-edged Dracaena):Easy to grow in bright to medium light, average home temperatures.
Epipiremnum aureum (Golden Pothos) (Guldranke):Climbing or trailing vine. An excellent choice for less than optimum conditions because it tolerates low light and infrequent watering.
Gerbera Daisy: Indoors requires bright light to flower. Keep soil slightly moist.
Hedera helix (English Ivy) (Vedbend):Prefers temperatures from 18.5°C in the day to 7°C at night.Water thoroughly and let the soil dry out between watering
Philodendron scandens 'oxycardium' (Heartleaf Philodendron):Easy to grow, happy in home temperatures and humidity. Good for low light situations. Let soil dry out between watering.
Sansevieria trifasciata (Snake Plant) (Svigermors skarpe tunge): This plant tolerates almost any amount of neglect, but with a little attention can be lovely. Does well in all light situations. Do not over-water.
Spathiphyllum (Peace Lily) (Fredslilje): Easy to grow. Tolerates low light conditions and blooms in medium light conditions. Keep soil slightly moist.
Source:The Best Houseplants for a Healthy Home, By HGTV.ca Editorial Team
Wednesday, November 26, 2008
Superstitions and Omens
Now we are soon in the tvelwth and last month of the year, but in ancient times while the Julian calendar ruled it was the tenth month of the year. Decem means ten in Latin. The medieval Danish name was Kristmåned (Christ's Month), the month where you celebrate the birth of Christ.
Ploughed field, Fulden.
The farmer had to finish his ploughing in the first days of December. After this he brought liquid manure to the winter rye and fetched thorn and staves for building and repairing the fences. If the meadows and the moors were frozen, he cut willow twigs for his furlong fences -and if he had no longstraw for his roof repair, he fetched reed in the frozen meadows and marshes.
He also had to repair the watermills and the sluices. Indoor the farmer family was concentrated around the Christmas preparations, but the whole family helped each other to repair tools and make twine and ropes. There was no time for laziness in the farmer's family.
Weather omens were serious matters then, not just something to make fun about. If an omen said that a cold and snowy December promised a fertile year and a good summer, then the farmer wanted cold and snow. A mild month with rain and fog made him worried. But else the weather omens were few in December, although three unlucky days kept people inside the house - the 6th, 11th and 18th of December. The 6th of December was Sct. Nicolai's Day, and if the weather was good it would be good the rest of the month. If the 8th of December (Sct. Anna's Day) came with thaw the whole winter would be mild.
The night between 12th and 13th December (Sct. Lucia) was a dangerous night. Before people went inside in the evening the whole year's work had to be finished and all crops be under cover, or else they would be destroyed by de underjordiske/the underground people (trolls, pixies etc.) It was an exciting night for the young girls on the farm. It was possible for the girl to see her future fiancé, if she held a lit candle in each hand and looked into a mirror while she spoke a verse:
Luci du blide
skal lade mig vide:
hvis dug jeg skal brede,
hvis seng jeg skal rede,
hvis kærest' jeg skal være,
hvis barn jeg skal bære,
i hvis arm jeg skal sove.
Luci you gentle one,
let me know,
whose table cloth I shall spread,
whose bed I shall make,
whose sweetheart I shall be,
whose child I shall bear,
in whose arm I shall sleep.
The night before Christmas the stables were cleaned extra thoroughly and the livestock had plenty of clean bedding and extra fodder. The superstition said that the animals found their tongue on Christmas Eve, and if everything wasn't quite allright then they would speak evil about their master and his house.
The family also had to consider "the underground people", and it was necessary to do a lot of preparations in order to prevent their destructive power. The farmer had to put steel above the stable door, and the teeth of the cattle had to be rubbed in salt and soot, (poor cattle!) to prevent the underground people from harming the animals. Plough, harrow and other tools had to be indoor, when Jerusalems shoemaker - the Wandering Jew - was out walking that night. If he rested upon a forgotten implement, then nothing was able to grow in that field the following year.
All things made of iron had a great power, and besides the steel above the stable door the farmer had to put a solid scythe into the corn pile, an axe into the dunghill and a big knife into the eaves.
Overall were dangerous creatures at work, numerous tales were told about helhesten(a ghost horse with three legs), trolls, witches, evil minded pixies, vætter (elves) and other dangerous underground people, who were the cause of misfortune to people who did not take precautions against them.
The farmer's wife and the farm girls had to see to that all clothes had been washed and dried before Christmas Eve - all clothes had to be indoor. The saying was: Den der klæder gærder i julen skal klæde lig inden året er omme. /He who dresses the fence in clothes during Christmas must dress a dead body before the end of the year.
The Christmas dinner went on and on - and on. Many believed that he who first stopped eating would die before the end of the coming year. This must really have been a hard nut to crack. They had to stop eating at the same time!
Often people put an extra, lit candle in the window. It had to show all wayfarers where the farm was , but it also had to lead the departed of the family, when they visited their home this night. Some put an extra setting on the Christmas table.
Many of our Christmas dishes come from the pagan solstitial celebrations. The special tradition where the farmer puts porridge upon the loft for the Christmas pixy is probably even older than this - probably from bondestenalderen (4000 bc) . In this period porridge was offered to friendly gods who lived by the settlement.
The Christmas pork roast is an old tradition too, way back to the pagan sacrificial celebrations before Christ, when the biggest hog (gilded orne) was sacrificed to the fertility god Frej, (Frodi) so that he would bring "year and peace" to the farm.
Christmas Day was a very important time. The farmer was dependent on the weather like the farmer has always been and still is. He had to imagine the weather in the year to come. In the morning the farmer cut twelve grooves (for the twelve days of Christmas) in a beam in the ceiling, and around every groove he made a chalk circle. Every day he wrote signs in a circle - if it was raining he wrote dots, if it was storming he wrote stripes and so on. He marked every circle with a sign which he himself knew the meaning of and which he had learned from his father. When Christmas was over he could easily see how the weather would be in the next twelve months. Actually a long-term forecast of that time. Today our long-term forecasts on TV are somewhat more advanced, but this doesn't mean they are more reliable. When I remember my umbrella the sun starts to shine and when I forget my umbrella it rains cats and dogs.
On this first day of Christmas it was not allowed to walk about in the farm. Fodder for the livestock were ready for several days. The farmer had to keep away from the grindstone, his wife had to keep away from the spinning wheel. Sewing and knitting were also forbidden, both this day and the rest of the Christmas days. If people crossed this line they were almost sure to get swellen fingers the next year. On every one of the twelve Christmas days it was widely forbidden to make practical and useful things, except when it was necessary to supply the fodder for the livestock and other necessary things.
Most omens were taken the night before the festival and the farmer was very interested in the weather on the last day of the year. If it was raining on exactly this day (Sylvesterdag) the harvest would be a difficult one. Furthermore he took a slice of bred on New Year's Eve, smeared lard on and cut it in four. Those four pieces were put on the floor. The chained dog was brought into the room and held back while the farmer pointed at the bread slices one by one and told the dog: "This is my rye, this is my oat, this is my wheat and this is my barley". The dog was loosened and the bread slice he eat first told the farmer which kind of corn would bring the best yield in the following season. And the next slices the dog eat were also put in order in the farmer's mind. So if the omen later showed to be wrong it wasn't his fault. Maybe he thought it was the dog's fault!
The young farm girls played fortunetellers. One girl went outside the room, and the girl who wanted to know about her future took four little bowls. The first one was placed over a tiny bunch of soil , the other above a ring, the third above a comb and the fourth above nothing. Then the girl outside was called upon and she pointed on one of the four bowls. The soil meant death, the ring meant early betrothal, the comb was marriage - and the empty bowl meant that nothing would change in the coming year.
Shortly before twelve according to the custom people started making a terrible noise with pots and pans in order to chase away evil spirits, but at twelve there was silence for a short moment, and then everyone wished one another a Happy New Year. We still make some noise but we don't believe in evil spirits - do we? We still wish each other a Happy New Year, and I wonder how old that tradition is.
Some people back then even believed that if they on New year's night at twelve stood in the middle of a crossroad and called out three times for a dear departed, then he or she would show and answer three questions.
Whatever! A new year began, and people way back then were dependent on so many things and afraid of so many things that it is impossible to imagine for us today. But if you have ever been out in the country on a completely dark night then you might catch an ancient feeling of fear. No moon, no stars, no street lights. You cannot even see your own hand. On a Christmas holiday by my grandmother, when I was about ten years, I had to fetch milk for her on a farm nearby on such a dark night. I was terribly scared and couldn't find my way in some critical moments. And in the old days, in the Middle Ages and long before, way back in time people really believed that out in the dark were evil spirits, the ghost horse, trolls, witches, pixies, elves and many more dangerous creatures.
Source: Ruth Gunnarsen: Familiens Højtider i gamle dage.
photo/mostly from Hjerl Hede Open Air Museum, Jutland: grethe bachmann
Thursday, November 06, 2008
In the autumn are lots of mushrooms in the forest. Some of them look fine and tempting, but it is necessary to know which are edible and which poisonous. If you are out gathering mushrooms for the first time it is a good idea to be in the company of an experienced mushroom hunter - even experts are sometimes in doubt. Fortunately there are some mushrooms which are easy to recognize, some you won't mistake for poisonous or bad tasting mushrooms.
I haven't written the names of the mushrooms here. I'm no expert and I'm only a photo hunter!
photo by Silkeborg October 2008: grethe bachmann
Monday, October 27, 2008
"There is music in the meadows, in the air --
Autumn is here;
Skies are gray, but hearts are mellow,
Leaves are crimson, brown, and yellow;
Pines are soughing, birches stir,
And the Gipsy trail is fresh beneath the fir.
And the harvest voices crying,
Blend with Autumn zephyrs sighing;
Tone and color, frost and fire,
Wings the nocturne Nature plays upon her lyre."- William Stanley Braithwaite, Lyric of Autumn
photo October 2008: grethe bachmann, Moesgård Have, Moesgård Museum
Ready for Halloween at the market
The carved pumpkin lit by a candle is one of Halloween's most prominent symbols in America and they are now popular in Denmark and the other Scandinavian countries. In Europe these lanterns were first carved from a turnip or rutabaga. Generally the traditions around Halloween in Denmark can be compared to the celebrations of the Danish Fastelavn in February where the children dress in imaginative costumes and walk from door to door begging for candy or buns, singing a special Fastelavn's song.
A difference between Halloween in USA and Denmark is that the Danes have a liberal view on this date. Halloween celebrations are either before or after October 31. In USA Halloween on October 31. is a national holiday like Christmas Eve. For practical reasons Allehelgensdag in Denmark is moved to the first Sunday in November - and in the church the names of the dead in the parish in that year is read by the vicar.
Halloween was originally a heathen celebration for the God of Death, Samhain among the Celts in Ireland and Great Britain. According to tradition the boundary between the alive and the deceased dissolved, and the dead became dangerous. Some of the ancient traditions have survived in a modern way, usually the celebrations included decorations with sinister symbols, often referring to death, the living dead, black magic and mythical monsters. The most famous Halloween-creatures in the present pop-culture are ghosts, living skeletons, black cats, witches, zombies, demons and little red devils plus literary figures like Dracula and Frankensteins Monster. Of common use are symbols for harvest and growth , especially pumpkins with a carved face and scare crows which represent both farming and the living dead. Black and orange have become Halloween colours for the night and the dark powers and the pumpkin and the growth of the fields.
The strong death symbols in the American Halloween with skeletons, skulls, bats and blood are not taken from the British celebrations, but inspired by the Catholic All Saint's Day in Mexico, where it is celebrated as the Day of the Dead.
The Halloween traditions have gradually become popular in Denmark and the other Scandinavic countries, especially because of the American mass culture and commercial pressure. The pumpkin-lanterns lit up everywhere in the evening now - and the children are very busy finding out what costume to wear this week-end.
photo October: grethe bachmann, Marketplace, Århus
Sunday, October 19, 2008
rosy clouds and a lonely seagull
mild salty air from the sea
the anglers are still waiting for the sea trout
a sunset walk by the beach is balsam for the soul
in every human being is a basic ability to recognize beauty
photo september 2008: grethe bachmann, Gilleleje, North Zealand
Sunday, October 12, 2008
A peregrine falcon on top of a chimney by a harbour.
History in short:
The most highly evolved of the falcons is the peregrine. It is a large falcon, but unlike the gyrfalcon the peregrine takes almost all of its prey out of the sky. The peregrine was a favourite of falconers and the most frequently bird used for falconry. It was not only easily trained, but provided the most daring spectacle. It circles high overhead, waiting for the quarry to be flushed, then dive for it at high speeds. In locations where the main quarry was wild fowl, it was sometimes called "hawk of the river". The peregrine was found all over Europe.
The Peregrine falcon's maximum speed:
Speed is the falcon's forte. If birds of prey were airplanes, then the eagles, the buzzards, the kites would be the gliders, and the falcons would be the jets. Estimates of the maximum speed of a falcon dive are as fast as 273 miles an hour (440 km/h) based on analysis of motion-picture footage of a falcon in full vertical dive taken by the Naval Research Laboratory in England in WWII. Most biologists, however, estimate the falcon's maximum velocity at 150 to 200 miles an hour ( 240 to 320 km/h), which is still faster than any other animal on earth.
See my article about Falconry in the Middle Ages.
photo 101008: stig bachmann nielsen, Naturplan Foto
Saturday, October 11, 2008
Although it is raining.......
the landscape is still beautiful.........
soft shades by the water stream ..........
mirror of autumn leaves in the water surface........
soft reds in greens.................
black cattle softer than in the sun .........
drizzle hanging like a painter's light brush.............
grass with coloured messy hair.....................
fungis is a little red lamp
a grey and rainy day in October is not so bad after all..........
photo 101008 grethe bachmann