Friday, May 12, 2017

The Magic Perfume

Perfume was produced and used since antiquity in Mesopotamia and Egypt. The process was developed and refined by the Romans and the Arabs. Archaeologs found in 2003 what probably is the oldest perfume in Pyrgos at Cypres. The word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare, meaning "to smoke through".

The perfumes date back more than 4,000 years. They were discovered in an ancient perfumery, a 4,000-square-meter (43,000 sq ft) factory housing at least 60 stills, mixing bowls, funnels, and perfume bottles. In ancient times people used herbs and spices, such as almond, coriander, myrtle, conifer resin and bergamot as well as flowers.

In the 9th century the Arab chemist Al-Kindi (Alkindus) wrote the Book of the Chemistry of Perfume and Distillations, which contained more than a hundred recipes for fragrant oils, salves, aromatic waters, and substitutes or imitations of costly drugs. The Persian chemist Ibn Sina (also known as  Avicenna) introduced the process of extracting oils from flowers by means of  distillation, the procedure most commonly used today. He first experimented with the rose.  Rose water was delicate, and immediately became popular. The art of perfumery was known in western Europe from 1221, taking into account the monks' recipes of Santa Maria delle Vigne or Santa Maria Novella of Florence, Italy. The first modern perfume was a mixture of scent oils and alcohol. It was produced in 1370 in Hungary and was called Hungarian water. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds  such as vanillin or coumarin.

The art of perfumery prospered in Renaissance Italy, and in the 16th century the personal perfumer to Catherine de Medici (1519–1589), Rene the Florentine (Renato il fiorentino), took Italian refinements to France. His laboratory was connected with her apartments by a secret passageway, so that no formulae could be stolen en route. Thanks to Rene, France quickly became one of the European centers of perfume and  cosmetics manufacture. Cultivation of flowers for their perfume essence, which had begun in the 14th century, grew into a major industry in the south of France
Between the 16th and 17th centuries, perfumes were used primarily by the wealthy to mask body odors,  resulting from infrequent bathing. Partly due to this patronage, the perfume industry developed.  In 1693, Italian barber Giovanni Paolo Feminis created a perfume water called Aqua Admirabilis, today best known as eau de cologne.

By the 18th century the Grasse region of France, Sicily, and Calabria (in Italy) were growing aromatic plants to provide the growing perfume industry with raw materials. Even today, Italy and France remain the center of European perfume design and trade.

The first fragrance labeled a "parfum" extract with a high concentration of aromatic compounds was Guerlain's Jicky in 1889. The conventional application of pure perfume (parfum extrait) in Western cultures is at pulse points, such as behind the ears, the nape of the neck, and the insides of wrists, elbows and knees, so that the pulse point will warm the perfume and release fragrance continuously. According to perfumer Sophia Grojsman behind the knees is the ideal point to apply perfume in order that the scent may rise. The modern perfume industry encourages the practice of layering fragrance so that it is released in different intensities depending upon the time of the day. Lightly scented products such as bath oil, shower gel, and body lotion are recommended for the morning; eau de toilette is suggested for the afternoon; and perfume applied to the pulse points for evening. Cologne fragrance is released rapidly, lasting around 2 hours. Eau de toilette lasts from 2 to 4 hours, while perfume may last up to six hoursA variety of factors can influence how fragrance interacts with the wearer's own physiology and affect the perception of the fragrance. Diet is one factor, as eating spicy and fatty foods can increase the intensity of a fragrance. The use of medications can also impact the character of a fragrance. The relative dryness of the wearer's skin is important, since dry skin will not hold fragrance as long as skin with more oil.

JICKY is a perfume by the House of Guerlain. Introduced in 1889, it is the oldest continuously-produced perfume in the world. Jicky was one of the first perfumes created with the addition of synthetic materials , and was the first abstract perfume in history, meaning it is not based on a single note. Its perfume notes include: spice,lemon, lavender, wood and vanilla. Its stopper is shaped like a champagne cork. According to legend, it was named after a girl Aimé Guerlain had a crush on when he was a student in England.

 Joy is a perfume created for Parisian couturier Jean Patou by perfumer Henri Almeras in 1929 . It is considered to be one of the greatest fragrances created and is a landmark example of the floral genre in perfumery. Joy was created as a reaction to the 1929 Wall Street Crash, which had diminished the fortunes of Jean Patou's wealthy American clientele. Despite its elevated price and the depressed economic environment, Joy became a success and has remained Jean Patou's most famous fragrance. In 2002, the House of Jean Patou created Enjoy, a contemporary take on Joy meant for younger women.Joy is composed primarily of a combination of jasmine and rose; 10,000 jasmine flowers and 28 dozen roses are required to create 30ml of the parfum, contributing to its high retail price. Joy also contains other flowers such as yland ylang, michelia and tuberose. Given its many ingredients, Joy does not smell like a specific flower. The original bottle, designed by French architect and artisan Louis Süe, was designed to have a simple, classical feel ."Joy" was voted "Scent of the Century" by the public at the Fragrance Foundation FiFi awards in 2000, beating its rival "Chanel No 5". Joy is preserved in its original 1930 formulation in the archives of the Osmothéque donated to the collection by Jean Kerléo  (formerly head perfumer at Jean Patou) .

Chanel No. 5 is the first perfume launched by French couturier Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel. The chemical formula for the fragrance was compounded by French-Russian chemist and perfumer Ernest Beaux. Traditionally, fragrance worn by women had adhered to two basic categories: respectable women favored the pure essence of a single garden flower, and sexually provocative perfumes heavy with animal musk or jasmine were associated with women of the demi-monde, prostitutes or courtesans. Chanel felt the time was right for the debut of a scent that would epitomize the flapper and would speak to the liberated spirit of the 1920Chanel envisioned a design that would be an antidote for the precious fussiness of the crystal fragrance bottles then in fashion, popularized by Lalique and Baccarat. Her bottle would be "pure transparency invisible bottle." It is generally considered that the bottle design was inspired by the rectangular beveled lines of the Charvet toiletry bottles, which, outfitted in a leather traveling case, were favored by her lover, Arthur Boy Capel. Some say it was the Whiskey decanter he used that she admired and wished to reproduce in "exquisite, expensive, delicate glass."The first bottle produced in 1919, differed from the Chanel No. 5 bottle known today. The original container had small, delicate, rounded shoulders and was sold only in Chanel boutiques to select clients. In 1924, when "Parfums Chanel" incorporated, the glass proved too thin to sustain shipping and distribution. This is the point in time when the only significant design change took place. The bottle was modified with square, faceted corneThe "pocket flacon" devised to be carried in the purse was introduced in 1934. The price point and container size were developed to appeal to a broader customer base. It represented an aspirational purchase, to appease the desire for a taste of exclusivity in those who found the cost of the larger bottle prohibitive.The bottle, over decades, has itself become an identifiable cultural artifact, so much so that Andy Warhol chose to commemorate its iconic status in the mid-1980s with his pop-art, silk-screen, Ads: Chanel

At the end of World War II, Coco Chanel's wartime collaboration with the enemy during wartime menaced her with the exposure of her treasonous activities. In an attempt at damage control, she placed a sign in the window of her rue Cambon boutique, announcing that free bottles of Chanel No. 5 were available to American GIs. Soldiers waited in long lines to take a bottle of Paris luxe back home, and "would have been outraged if the French police had touched a hair on her head".In the 1950s the glamour of Chanel No. 5 was reignited by the celebrity of Marilyn Monroe. Monroe's unsolicited endorsement of the fragrance provided invaluable publicity. In a 1954 interview, when asked what she wore to bed, the movie star provocatively responded: "Chanel No. 5."In the 1960s the glossy fashion magazines such as Vogue and Bazaar presented Chanel No. 5 as a required accessory to every woman's femininity. Print advertising for Chanel No. 5 was staid and conservative in both visuals and text, eschewing the energy and quirky aesthetic of the burgeoning youth culture. Two catch phrases alternated as ad copy: "Every woman alive wants Chanel No. 5" and "Every woman alive loves Chanel No. 5."During the 1950s the ads had diminished the allure of Chanel No. 5, identifying it with a scent for sweet, proper co-eds whose style bibles were teenage fashion magazines. In the 1970s the brand name needed revitalization. For the first time in and its long history it ran the risk of being labeled as mass market and passé. The fragrance was removed from drug stores and similar outlets. Outside advertising agencies were dropped. The remaking was re-imagined by Jacques Helleu, the artistic director for "Parfums Chanel." Helleu chose French actress Catherine Deneuve for the new face of Chanel.In the 1990s, more money was reportedly spent advertising Chanel No. 5 than was spent for the promotion of any other fragrance brand. Carole Bouquet was the face of Chanel No. 5 during this decade. It has been estimated, as of 2011, that between $20 to $25 million is spent annually on marketing for Chanel No. 5.

In 2003, actress Nicole Kidman was enlisted to represent the fragrance. Film director Baz Luhrmann, brought in to conceive and direct a new advertising campaign featuring her, described his concept for what he titled No 5 The Film as "a two-minute trailer ... for a film that has actually never been made, not about Chanel No. 5 but Chanel No. 5 is the touchstone". The eventual commercial, produced in two-minute and 30-second versions, cost 18 million English pounds, with Kidman paid US$3.7 million for her workIn May 2012, the company announced that Brad Pitt would be the first male to advertise Chanel No. 5.In 2013 Chanel ran an advertising campaign using a recorded interview with Marilyn Monroe in which she is asked about her use of Chanel No. 5 fragrance. It featured Ed Feingersh's photograph of the actress splashing herself with a bottle of the perfume.In October 2014, Luhrmann again collaborated with Chanel, creating a second advertising campaign for No. 5, this time starring Gisele Bündchen and Michiel Huisman. Throughout the film, singer Lo-Fang performs his slower romantic rendition of "You're the one that I want".

 Shalimar is a women's fragrance originally created by Jacques Guerlain in 1921, as a classic soft amber (Oriental) parfum, and currently produced by Guerlain. Popular for 90 years, Shalimarwas created in 1921, and re-released in 1925, and launched at the Decorative Arts Exhibition as an antidote to The Great Depression. Jacques Guerlain was inspired by Mumtaz Mahal, the woman for whom the Taj Mahal was built. Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan's  love for Mumtaz Mahal, his favourite wife, was so great that he built her the Garden of Shalimar in Lahore, Pakistan (and the Taj Mahal). Shalimar itself is currently produced in Shalimar Extract, Eau de Parfum, Eau de Toilette, Eau de Cologne, and Fleur de Shalimar Edition. Guerlain also markets Shalimar Parfum Initial, which has a different formula, color and fragrance than Shalimar. Shalimar is preserved in its original 1925 formulation in the archives of the Osmotheque, donated by Jean-Paul Guerlain. The fragrance can be described as vanilla, powdery and sweet. The fragrance contains bergamot, lemon, jasmine, rose, iris incense, opopanax, tonka bean  and vanilla. It is considered to be an Oriental perfume; spicy perfumes were popular during Shalimar's conception. The top note of the fragrance is bergamot. The middle notes are iris and rose. The base note is vanilla.  Shalimar is mentioned in the songs "Forty Shades of Green by Johnny Cash and "Madame George" by Van Morrison.  " In "House Arrest" (Season 2 Episode 11) of "The Sopranos" HBO,  Junior Soprano mentions to his doctor he sent a bottle to a medical assistant (Tracy) who had checked on him at his home after having a stent placed. In the 1989 Gene Wilder and Richard Pryor movie, "See No Evil, Hear No Evil", Richard Pryor's blind character identifies the villainess played by Joan Severance by her by her "beautiful smell", "Shalimar". In the 1971 thriller The Mephisto Waltz   Shalimar is the perfume favored by Jacqueline Bisset's character named Paula. At the film's conclusion when Paula's soul has been transferred in the body of Roxanne (Barbara Parkins) the character of Duncan Ely who is unaware of the change remarks to Roxanne, "isn't that the perfume worn by our late little housewife ?" In the movie "The Four Seasons", directed and starring Alan Alda. Shalimar is given as a gift. Shalimar is mentioned during the NCIS S11 E12. Ducky is performing an autopsy and asks Gibbs to take a whiff of the deceased. He tells him that the smell is expensive. 

Rive Gauche is a women's perfume launched by Yves Saint Laurent in 1971. The fragrance was composed in 1969 by perfumers Jacques Polge and Michael Hy at Roure. It was reformulated by Daniela Andrier and Jacques Hy at Givaudan in 2003. The all-aluminium silver and cobalt blue striped bottle was designed by Pierre Dinnand. The perfume was named after Yves Saint Laurent's   newly opened boutique in Saint-germain-des- Près, the first ready-to-wear store opened by a couturier. Perfume critic Luca Turin considered Rive Gauche as the "best floral aldehydic of all time". It is a classic aldehyde with a floral heart and woody base notes.

Opium is an Oriental-spicy perfume created for fashion brand Yves Saint Laurent (YSL), first marketed in 1977. Its top notes are a mixture of fruit and spices, with mandarin orange, plum, clove, coriander and pepper, as well as bay leaf. Its floral middle notes consist predominantly jasmine, rose and Lily of the Valley, in addition to carnation, cinnamon, peach and orris root. It is underlined by the sweet woody base note containing sandalwood, cedarwood, myrrh, opopanax, labdanum, benzoin and castoreum in addition to amber, incense, musk, patchouli, tolu and yetiver.

Opium caused a stir with its controversial name and brought accusations that brand designer Yves Saint Laurent was condoning drug use. In the United States, a group of Chinese Americans demanded a change of the name and a public apology from Saint Laurent for "his insensitivity to Chinese history and Chinese American concerns." They formed a committee called the American Coalition Against Opium and Drug Abuse, which expressed outrage at the choice of a name representing "a menace that destroyed many lives in China." But such controversies rather helped the perfume to be well-publicized, which soon became a best-selling scent. For its launch party in 1977, a tall ship Peking was rented from the South Street Sea Museum in New York's East Harbor, and writer Truman Capote sat at the helm of the ship at the party. The ship was draped with banners of gold, red, and purple, and the Oriental theme was displayed with a 1,000-pound (450 kg) bronze statue of the Buddha, decorated with white cattleya orchids. YSL carried the Oriental theme into its packaging design as well—the red plastic container holding the perfume's glass vial, designed by Pierre Dinand, was inspired by inro, the small Japanese lacquered cases that were worn under komonos and held perfumes, herbs and medicines.

Forbidden fruit from the house of Dior, Poison is the revolutionary fragrance that became a legend since it has been launched in 1985. An unrivalled alchemy; spicy, fruity, woody fragrance of enigmatic profoundness that mesmerizes the senses…forever. Top notes include coriander, wildberries, orange honey, tuberose are at perfume’s heart, while base note features opopanar. This dark, mysterious and elegant perfume, which won a FiFi award in 1987, was created by edouard flechier. In 2006, the house of Dior released the Poison Amulets. These are limited edition 15 ml purse sprays available in  Poison, Pure Poison, Tendre Poison and Hypnotic Poison; each comes with 2 refills and is packaged in a satin pouch with funnel. The bottles are very elegant while following the style and colors of the originals.

Tresor Perfume by Lancome is considered to be a modern classic by many fragrance critics and was composed by master perfumer Sophia Grojsman in 1990 . Juicy peach and ripe apricot adds dimension to a rose in full bloom tinged with amber. Softly rounded with no hard edges, this is a refined and romantic fragrance for women. Notes include apricot blossom, rose, lilac, iris, peach, amber, sandalwood, musk, and vanilla. All products are original, authentic name brands. Tresor is a treasure among perfume creations (‘tresor’ in French means ‘treasure’). It is one of the best-selling and most popular perfumes in the world.  

This is the first perfume of Cacharel, which was created in 1978. Anais Anais is a ultra-feminine fresh, rich and romantic bouquet of flowers. Transparent orange blossom with heady hyacinth open the composition. The intensive floral heart blends sweet rose, delicate white lily and magical jasmine. The base is composed of comforting amber, warm sandalwood with a tender touch of misterious incense. The successful Anaïs Anaïs was launched in 1978. It was followed by Cacharel pour l'Homme, Loulou, Eden, Loulou Blue, Eau d'Eden, Noa, Nemo, Gloria, Amor Amor, Amor Amor Eau Fraiche, Noa Fleur, Noa Perle, Promesse and Amor pour homme. The latest perfume to be launched is "Liberté", an orange chypre with fresh citrous top notes inspired by a traditional French cake called 'chamonix' and woody heart and base notes with patchouli. The person representing Liberté in ad campaigns is Brazilian born model, Gisele Bündchen, who is also the new face for the brand Cacharel Parfums, following Kate Moss who modeled for Anaïs Anaïs and Laetitia Casta for Promesse.


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